Defines functions imputeMissingData

Documented in imputeMissingData

#' imputeMissingData
#' @aliases imputeMissingData
#' @title Matrix prediction method using a Latent Factor Model
#' @description This function predicts the missing entries of an input matrix
#' (NA values) through the use of a Latent Factor Model. You can run the
#' function also in parallel mode and split up the matrix to a certain number of
#' smaller matrices to speed up the prediction process. If you set the
#' rowBlockSize and colBlockSize both to 0, the function is running on the whole
#' matrix. Take a look at the details section for some deeper information about
#' this. The default parameters are chosen with the intention to make an
#' accurate prediction within an affordable time interval.
#' @details The method used to predict the missing entries in the matrix is
#' called "latent factor model". In the following sections, the method itself is
#' described as well as the correct usage of the parameters. The parameters are
#' described in the same order as they appear in the usage section.\cr
#' The method originally stems from recommender systems where the goal is to
#' predict user ratings of products. It is based on matrix factorization and uses
#' a discrete gradient descent (GDE) algorithm that stepwise predicts two
#' matrices L and R with matching dimensions to the input matrix. These two
#' matrices are initialized with random numbers and stepwise adjusted towards
#' the values of the input matrix through the GDE algorithm. After every
#' adjustment step, the global loss is calculated and the parameters used for
#' the adjustment are possibly also adjusted so that the global loss is getting
#' minimized and the prediction is getting accurate. After a predefined number
#' of steps (called epochs) are executed by the GDE algorithm, the predicted
#' matrix is calculated by matrix multiplication of L and R. Finally, all
#' missing values in the input matrix are replaced with the values from the
#' predicted matrix and the already known values from the input matrix are
#' maintained. The completed input matrix is then returned at the end.\cr
#' Description of the parameters:
#' \itemize{
#' \item data: simply the input matrix with missing values set to NA
#' \item rowBlockSize and colBlockSize: Here you can define the dimensions of
#' the smaller matrices, the input matrix is divided into if the function is
#' working in parallel mode. For details about these so called blocks, see the
#' section "About the blocks" below.
#' \item epochs: Defines the number of steps the gradient descent algorithm
#' performs until the prediction ends. Note that the higher this number is, the
#' more precisely is the prediction and the more time is needed to perform the
#' prediction. If the step size is too small, the prediction would not be very
#' good. We suggest to use a step size of 50 since we did not get better
#' predictions if we took higher step sizes during our testing process.
#' }
#' About the blocks:
#' You have the possibility to change the size of the blocks in which the input
#' matrix can be divided. if you choose e.g. the rowBlockSize = 50 and the
#' colBlockSize = 60 your matrix will be cut into smaller matrices of the size
#' approximately 50x60. Note that this splitting algorithm works with every
#' possible matrix size! If both size parameters do not fit to the dimensions of
#' the input matrix, the remaining rows and columns of the input matrix are
#' distributed over some blocks, so that the block sizes are roughly of the same
#' size. All blocks are saved at the specified directory after the processing
#' of a block has been done within an RData file. These RData files are
#' continuously numbered and contain the row and column start and stop
#' positions in their name. Next, these blocks are assembled into the returned
#' matrix and this matrix is saved in the specified directory. Finally, single
#' blocks are deleted. To see how this is done, simply run the example at the
#' end of this documentation. We suggest to use the block size of 60 (default)
#' but you can also use any other block size, as far as it is bigger than the
#' number of samples in the biggest batch. This avoids having an entire row of
#' NA values in a block which leads to a crash of the imputeMissingData method.
#' In order  to process the complete matrix without dividing into blocks,
#' specify rowBlockSize = 0 and colBlockSize = 0. But if the input matrix is
#' large (more than 200x200), it is not recommended due to exponential increase
#' of computation time required.\cr
#' Note that the size of the blocks affect the prediction accuracy. In case of
#' very small blocks, the information obtained from neighbor entries is not
#' sufficient. Thus, the larger the size of the block is, the more accurately
#' those entries are predicted. Default size 60 is enough to have accurate
#' prediction in a reasonable amount of time.
#' @return Returns a data matrix with the same dimensions as well as same row
#' and column names as the input matrix. According to the "outputFormat"
#' parameter, either a .RData file containing only the returned matrix or a
#' tab-delimited .txt file containing the content of the returned matrix is
#' saved in the specified directory.
#' @references \insertRef{Akulenko2016}{BEclear}
#' @references \insertRef{Koren2009}{BEclear}
#' @references \insertRef{Candes2009}{BEclear}
#' @param data any matrix filled e.g. with beta values. The missing entries you
#' want to predict have to be set to NA
#' @param rowBlockSize the number of rows that is used in a block if the
#' function is run in parallel mode and/or not on the whole matrix. Set this and
#' the "colBlockSize" parameter to 0 if you want to run the function on the
#' whole input matrix. We suggest to use a block size of 60 but you can also use
#' any other block size, but the size has to be bigger than the number of
#' samples in the biggest batch. Look at the details section for more
#' information about this feature.
#' @param colBlockSize the number of columns that is used in a block if the
#' function is run in parallel mode and/or not on the whole matrix. Set this,
#' and the "rowBlockSize" parameter to 0 if you want to run the function on the
#' whole input matrix. We suggest to use a block size of 60 but you can also use
#' any other block size, but the size has to be bigger than the number of
#' samples in the biggest batch. Look at the details section for more
#' information about this feature.
#' @param epochs the number of iterations used in the gradient descent algorithm
#' to predict the missing entries in the data matrix.
#' @param lambda constant that controls the extent of regularization during the
#' gradient descent
#' @param gamma constant that controls the extent of the shift of parameters
#' during the gradient descent
#' @param r length of the second dimension of variable matrices R and L
#' @param outputFormat you can choose if the finally returned data matrix should
#' be saved as an .RData file or as a tab-delimited .txt file in the specified
#' directory. Allowed values are "RData" and "txt".
#' @param dir set the path to a directory the predicted matrix should be
#' stored. The current working directory is defined as default parameter.
#' @param BPPARAM An instance of the
#' \code{\link[BiocParallel]{BiocParallelParam-class}} that determines how to
#' parallelisation of the functions will be evaluated.
#' @param fixedSeed determines if they seed should be fixed, which is important
#' for testing
#' @export imputeMissingData
#' @import BiocParallel
#' @import futile.logger
#' @usage imputeMissingData(data, rowBlockSize=60,  colBlockSize=60, epochs=50,
#' lambda = 1, gamma = 0.01, r = 10, outputFormat="", dir=getwd(),
#' BPPARAM=SerialParam(), fixedSeed = TRUE)
#' @examples
#' ## Shortly running example. For a more realistic example that takes
#' ## some more time, run the same procedure with the full BEclearData
#' ## dataset.
#' ## Whole procedure that has to be done to use this function.
#' data(BEclearData)
#' ex.data <- ex.data[31:90, 7:26]
#' ex.samples <- ex.samples[7:26, ]
#' ## Calculate the batch effects
#' batchEffects <- calcBatchEffects(data = ex.data, samples = ex.samples,
#' adjusted = TRUE, method = "fdr")
#' meds <- batchEffects$med
#' pvals <- batchEffects$pval
#' ## Summarize p-values and median differences for batch affected genes
#' sum <- calcSummary(medians = meds, pvalues = pvals)
#' ## Set entries defined by the summary to NA
#' clearedMatrix <- clearBEgenes(data = ex.data, samples = ex.samples, summary = sum)
#' # Predict the missing entries with standard values, row- and block sizes are
#' # just set to 10 to get a short runtime. To use these parameters, either use
#' # the default values or please note the description in the details section
#' # above
#' predicted <- imputeMissingData(
#'   data = clearedMatrix, rowBlockSize = 10,
#'   colBlockSize = 10
#' )
imputeMissingData <- function(data, rowBlockSize = 60, colBlockSize = 60, epochs = 50,
                              lambda = 1, gamma = 0.01, r = 10,
                              outputFormat = "", dir = getwd(),
                              BPPARAM = SerialParam(), fixedSeed = TRUE) {
  flog.info("Starting the imputation of missing values.")
  flog.info("This might take a while.")
  D1 <- NULL
  if (epochs <= 0) {
    stop("number of epochs has to be greater than 0")

  ## run BEclear
  flog.info("BEclear imputation is started:")
  flog.info(paste("block size:", rowBlockSize, " x ", colBlockSize))
  ## calculate start - and stop position for every block
  if (nrow(data) < rowBlockSize | rowBlockSize == 0) {
    rowBlockSize <- nrow(data)
  if (ncol(data) < colBlockSize | colBlockSize == 0) {
    colBlockSize <- ncol(data)
  rowPos <- calcPositions(nrow(data), rowBlockSize)
  colPos <- calcPositions(ncol(data), colBlockSize)
  blockFrame <- calcBlockFrame(rowPos, colPos, rowBlockSize, colBlockSize)

  blocks <- apply(blockFrame, 1,
    FUN = function(x, data, total) {
      return(list(blockNr = x[1], block = data[x[2]:x[3], x[4]:x[5]], total = total))
    data = data, total = length(blockFrame$number)

  blockNumbers <- blockFrame[, 1]
  ## run BEclear in parallel mode
  blocksDone <- unlist(bplapply(blocks, imputeMissingDataForBlock,
    dir = dir,
    epochs = epochs, BPPARAM = BPPARAM, lambda = lambda,
    gamma = gamma, r = r, fixedSeed = fixedSeed

  ## combine the blocks to the predictedGenes data.frame
  predictedGenes <- combineBlocks(blockFrame, rowPos, colPos, dir)
  colnames(predictedGenes) <- colnames(data)

  ## remove all stored single block files
  blockFilenames <- c()
  for (i in seq_len(nrow(blockFrame))) {
    row <- paste(
      sep = ""
    blockFilenames <- c(blockFilenames, row)
  for (i in seq_len(length(blockFilenames))) {
    filedir <- paste(dir, blockFilenames[i], sep = "/")

  remove(blockFrame, blockNumbers, colPos, rowPos)

  ## save block as predictedGenes
  predictedGenes <- as.data.frame(predictedGenes)
  if (outputFormat == "RData") {
    filename <- paste("predicted.genes", "RData", sep = ".")
    save(predictedGenes, file = paste(dir, filename, sep = "/"))
  } else if (outputFormat == "txt") {
    filename <- paste("predicted.genes", "txt", sep = ".")
      file = paste(dir, filename, sep = "/"),
      row.names = TRUE, col.names = TRUE, sep = "\t"

Try the BEclear package in your browser

Any scripts or data that you put into this service are public.

BEclear documentation built on Nov. 8, 2020, 8:07 p.m.