R/testGeno.R

Defines functions testSingleVarMultAlleles testGenoSingleVarWaldGxE testGenoSingleVarWald testGenoSingleVarScore poibinMidp testGenoSingleVarBR testGenoSingleVar

## function that gets an n\times p matrix of p genotypes of n individuals, and a null model, and tests the genotypes associations with the outcomes. 
## Genetic data are always assumed complete. 
## Types of tests: 
## Single variant: Wald, score, BinomiRare, interaction. 
## Variant set: SKAT, burden, SKAT-O. Multiple types of p-values. Default: Davis with Koenen if does not converge. 


# E an environmental variable for optional GxE interaction analysis. 
testGenoSingleVar <- function(nullmod, G, E = NULL, test = c("Score", "Wald"), GxE.return.cov = FALSE){
    test <- match.arg(test)

    G <- .genoAsMatrix(nullmod, G)

    if (test == "Wald" & nullmod$family$family != "gaussian"){
    	test <- "Score"
    	message("Cannot use Wald test for non-guassian families, using the score test instead.")
    }
    
    if (test == "Wald" & is.null(E)){
        Xtilde <- calcXtilde(nullmod, G)
        res <- .testGenoSingleVarWald(Xtilde, nullmod$Ytilde,
                                      n=length(nullmod$Ytilde), k=ncol(nullmod$model.matrix))
    }
    
    if (test == "Score" & !is.null(E)){
    	test <- "Wald"
    	message("Cannot use Score test for GxE, using the Wald test instead.")
    }
        
    if (test == "Wald" & !is.null(E)){
        res <- .testGenoSingleVarWaldGxE(nullmod, G, E, GxE.return.cov.mat=GxE.return.cov)
    }
    
    if (test == "Score"){
        Xtilde <- calcXtilde(nullmod, G)
        res <- .testGenoSingleVarScore(Xtilde, G, nullmod$resid)
    }
    
    if (test == "BinomiRare"){
        if (nullmod$family$mixedmodel) stop("BinomiRare should be used for IID observations.")
        if (nullmod$family$family != "binomial") stop("BinomiRare should be used for disease (binomial) outcomes.")
    	res <- .testGenoSingleVarBR(nullmod$outcome, probs=nullmod$fitted.values, G)
    }

    return(res)
}


## this function currently assumes that the alt allele is the minor allele. So either G 
## needs to be such that alt allele is minor allele, or the function checks for it, or a vector of 
## indicators or of frequencies would be provided. 
.testGenoSingleVarBR <- function(D, probs, G){
    if (!requireNamespace("poibin")) stop("package 'poibin' must be installed for the BinomiRare test")
    res <- data.frame(n.carrier = NA, n.D.carrier = NA, expected.n.D.carrier = NA, pval = NA)
    
    for (i in 1:ncol(G)){
        carrier.inds <- which(G[,i] > 0)
        res$n.carrier[i] <- length(carrier.inds)
        cur.prob.vec <- probs[carrier.inds]
        res$expected.n.D.carrier[i] <- sum(cur.prob.vec)
        res$n.D.carrier[i] <- sum(D[carrier.inds])
        
        res$pval[i] <- .poibinMidp(n.carrier = res$n.carrier[i], n.D.carrier = res$n.D.carrier[i], prob.vec = cur.prob.vec)		 
    }

    return(res)
}


.poibinMidp <- function(n.carrier, n.D.carrier, prob.vec){
    stopifnot(n.D.carrier <= n.carrier, length(prob.vec) == n.carrier)
    d.poibin <- poibin::dpoibin(0:n.carrier, prob.vec)
    prob.cur <- d.poibin[n.D.carrier + 1]
    mid.p <- 0.5*prob.cur + sum(d.poibin[d.poibin < prob.cur])
    return(mid.p)
}



.testGenoSingleVarScore <- function(Xtilde, G, resid){
    XtX <- colSums(Xtilde^2) # vector of X^T P X (for each SNP) b/c (M^T M) = P
    score <- as.vector(crossprod(G, resid)) # X^T P Y
    Stat <- score/sqrt(XtX)
    
    res <- data.frame(Score = score, Score.SE = sqrt(XtX), Score.Stat = Stat, 
                      Score.pval = pchisq(Stat^2, df = 1, lower.tail = FALSE) )
    
    return(res)
}



.testGenoSingleVarWald <- function(Xtilde, Ytilde, n, k){
    XtX <- colSums(Xtilde^2) # vector of X^T SigmaInv X (for each SNP)
    XtY <- as.vector(crossprod(Xtilde, Ytilde))
    beta <- XtY/XtX
    sY2 <- sum(Ytilde^2)
    RSS <- as.numeric((sY2 - XtY * beta)/(n - k - 1))
    Vbeta <- RSS/XtX
    Stat <- beta/sqrt(Vbeta)
    res <- data.frame(Est = beta, Est.SE = sqrt(Vbeta), Wald.Stat = Stat, 
                      Wald.pval = pchisq(Stat^2, df = 1, lower.tail = FALSE))
    return(res)
}


.testGenoSingleVarWaldGxE <- function(nullmod, G, E, GxE.return.cov.mat = FALSE){

    E <- as.matrix(E)
    p <- ncol(G)
    v <- ncol(E) + 1
    n <- length(nullmod$Ytilde)
    k <- ncol(nullmod$model.matrix)
    sY2 <- sum(nullmod$Ytilde^2)
    
    if (GxE.return.cov.mat) {
        res.Vbetas <- vector(mode = "list", length = p)
    }
    
    intE <- cbind(1, E) # add intercept the "Environmental" variable E.
    if (is(G, "Matrix")) intE <- Matrix(intE)
    
    var.names <- c("G", paste("G", colnames(E), sep = ":"))
    
    res <- matrix(NA, nrow = p, ncol = length(var.names)*2 + 2,
                  dimnames = list(NULL, 
                                  c(paste0("Est.", var.names), paste0("SE.", var.names), "GxE.Stat", "Joint.Stat" ) ))

    # what is this supposed to do?
    #if (ncol(E) == 1) res[,"cov.G.E"] <- NA
    
    for (g in 1:p) {
        Xtilde <- calcXtilde(nullmod, G[, g] * intE)
        XtX <- crossprod(Xtilde)
        XtXinv <- tryCatch(chol2inv(chol(XtX)), error = function(e) {TRUE}) # this is inverse A matrix of sandwich
        # check that the error function above hasn't been called (which returns TRUE instead of the inverse matrix)
        if (is.logical(XtXinv)) next
        
        XtY <- crossprod(Xtilde, nullmod$Ytilde)
        betas <- crossprod(XtXinv, XtY)
        res[g, grep("Est", colnames(res))] <- as.vector(betas)
        
        RSS <- as.numeric((sY2 - crossprod(XtY, betas))/(n - k - v))
        Vbetas <- XtXinv * RSS
        
        if (GxE.return.cov.mat) {
            res.Vbetas[[g]] <- Vbetas
        }
        
        res[g, grep("SE", colnames(res))] <- sqrt(diag(Vbetas))
        
        res[g, "GxE.Stat"] <- tryCatch(sqrt(as.vector(crossprod(betas[-1],
                                                 crossprod(chol2inv(chol(Vbetas[-1, -1])),
                                                           betas[-1])))), 
                                       error = function(e) { NA })
        
        res[g, "Joint.Stat"] <- tryCatch(sqrt(as.vector(crossprod(betas,
                                                   crossprod(XtX, betas))/RSS)), 
                                         error = function(e) { NA })
    }
    
    res <- as.data.frame(res)
    res$GxE.pval <- pchisq((res$GxE.Stat)^2, df = (v - 1), lower.tail = FALSE)
    res$Joint.pval <- pchisq((res$Joint.Stat)^2, df = v, lower.tail = FALSE)
    
    if (GxE.return.cov.mat) {
        return(list(res = res, GxEcovMatList = res.Vbetas))
    } else {
        return(res)
    }
}



## G is an n by v matrix of 2 or more columns, all representing alleles of the same (multi-allelic) variant. 
.testSingleVarMultAlleles <- function(Xtilde, Ytilde, n, k){
    v <- ncol(Xtilde)
    
    var.names <- colnames(Xtilde)
    
    res <- matrix(NA, nrow = 1, ncol = length(var.names)*2 + 2,
                  dimnames = list(NULL, 
                                  c(paste0("Est.", var.names), paste0("SE.", var.names), "Joint.Stat", "Joint.Pval" ) ))
    
    
    XtX <- crossprod(Xtilde)
    XtXinv <- tryCatch(chol2inv(chol(XtX)), error = function(e) {TRUE})
    
    if (is.logical(XtXinv)) return(list(res = res, allelesCovMat = NA))
    
    XtY <- crossprod(Xtilde, Ytilde)
    betas <- crossprod(XtXinv, XtY) ## effect estimates of the various alleles
    res[1, grep("Est", colnames(res))] <- betas
    
    sY2 <- sum(Ytilde^2)
    RSS <- as.numeric((sY2 - crossprod(XtY, betas))/(n - k - v))
    Vbetas <- XtXinv * RSS
    
    res[1, grep(colnames(res), "SE")] <- sqrt(diag(Vbetas))
    
    res[1, "Joint.Stat"] <- tryCatch(crossprod(betas,
                                               crossprod(XtX, betas))/RSS, 
                                     error = function(e) { NA })
    
    res[,"Joint.pval"] <- pchisq(res[,"Joint.Stat"], df = v, lower.tail = FALSE)
    
    res <- as.data.frame(res)
    return(list(res = res, allelesCovMat = Vbetas))
}

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GENESIS documentation built on Nov. 1, 2018, 6:01 p.m.