Nothing

```
surprisal.chart <- function(B, Zmat, C = NULL) {
# This is a retraction function for mapping real matrix y of M-1
# columns and N rows on to the probability (P) and surprisal (S)
# manifolds within M-space.
# x = y*Z' is a real vector of length M where Z is an M by M-1 matrix
# with orthonormal columns that sum to zero.
# Function zerobasis(M) generates Z using fourier basis values.
# Vectors in N by M matrix X are transformed into
# a multinomial vector containing probability M values that sum to one,
# and also into surprisal, S = -log_C P.
# C is the base for the surprisal transform, defaults to M.
# S is the surprisal vector.
# P is the probability vector, that is, a multinomial object.
# DS is the matrix of partial derivatives of surprisal vector S elements
# with respect to elements of the real vector x.
# Last modified 2023-02-24 by Juan Li
# Based on the Matlab code (2023-01-10)
N <- nrow(B)
M <- nrow(Zmat)
if (ncol(Zmat) != M-1)
{
stop(paste("Zmat does not have M-1 columns: M = ", M,
" ncol(Zmat) = ", ncol(Zmat), sep = ""))
}
if (ncol(B) != M-1)
{
stop(paste("B does not have M-1 columns: M = ", M,
" ncol(B) = ", ncol(B), sep = ""))
}
if (is.null(C)) C <- M
logC <- log(C)
# convert y into x
X <- B %*% t(Zmat)
# compute probability and surprisal vectors
E <- C^(-X)
sumE <- rowSums(E)
matsumE <- matrix(sumE, nrow=length(sumE), ncol=M, byrow=FALSE)
P <- E/matsumE
S <- -log(P)/logC
# compute, if needed, the partial derivatives of S with respect to x
DS <- array(rep(0, N*M*M), dim = c(N, M, M))
for (i in 1:M)
{
for (j in 1:M)
{
if (i == j)
{
for (k in 1:N)
{
DS[k, j, i] <- 1 - P[k, j]
}
} else
{
for (k in 1:N)
{
DS[k, j, i] <- -P[k, j]
}
}
}
}
return(list(S = S, P = P, DS = DS, X = X))
}
```

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