kernel_dispersal | R Documentation |

The kernel_dispersal function employs a probabilistic kernel-based dispersal algorithm to modify the population using a user-defined diffusion distribution (see dispersal_kernel), arrival probability layers (e.g. habitat suitability), and growth limiting layers (e.g. carrying capacity). This function is much slower than the fast_dispersal, however, respects dispersal limitations which may be more ecologically appropriate. Further, the kernel-based dispersal function utilises a mechanism to optimise computational performance in which it switches between pre-allocating cell movements based on the available memory of the host computer (faster but more memory intensive) or executing cell movements in sequence (slower but less memory intensive).

kernel_dispersal( dispersal_kernel = exponential_dispersal_kernel(distance_decay = 1), max_distance = NULL, arrival_probability = c("both", "suitability", "carrying_capacity", "none"), dispersal_proportion = set_proportion_dispersing() )

`dispersal_kernel` |
a single built-in or user-defined distance dispersal kernel function. |

`max_distance` |
the maximum distance that each life stage can disperse in spatial units of the landscape (in kernel-based dispersal this truncates the dispersal curve). Setting a reasonable number will increase the performance of a simulation by reducing the number of cells that need to be calculated in distance matrices. |

`arrival_probability` |
the name of a spatial layer in the landscape object that controls where individuals can disperse to (e.g. "suitability") or "none" to allow individuals to disperse to all non-NA cells. The default is to use both the habitat suitability and carrying capacity layers. When this option is selected, the arrival probability in each cell is calculated by multiplying the habitat suitability by one minus the proportion of space taken up in the cell (total population of life stages contributing to density dependence divided by the carrying capacity). |

`dispersal_proportion` |
a built-in or custom function defining the proportions of individuals that can disperse in each life stage. |

# Example of kernel-based dispersal where only the 3rd life stage # disperses up to a maximum distance of 2000 meters. Dispersal is affected # by both habitat suitability and carrying capacity (default). The default # dispersal kernel uses a decay parameter to control how far populations disperse. ## Not run: kb_dispersal <- kernel_dispersal(max_distance = 2000, dispersal_kernel = exponential_dispersal_kernel(distance_decay = 1000)) ls <- landscape(population = egk_pop, suitability = egk_hab, carrying_capacity = egk_k) pd <- population_dynamics(change = growth(egk_mat), dispersal = kb_dispersal, density_dependence = ceiling_density()) simulation(landscape = ls, population_dynamics = pd, habitat_dynamics = NULL, timesteps = 20) ## End(Not run)

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