R/f0.g4n1.code.r

Defines functions new8arc range8pos geneal4pam pam2arc arc2pam pam2path pos2pos mindis8pam explore8pam cycle8pam neighbours8gn ends8gn and4gn minbar8gn read8gn modify4gn rgn plot3D8gn position4gn write8gn gn2list list2gn relation4gn arc4gn pam2gn gn2path path4gn cycles4gn plot8cgn gn2item rmar4gn rmnd4gn parcours8gn g4n3k

Documented in and4gn arc2pam arc4gn cycle8pam cycles4gn ends8gn explore8pam g4n3k geneal4pam gn2item gn2list gn2path list2gn minbar8gn mindis8pam modify4gn neighbours8gn new8arc pam2arc pam2gn pam2path parcours8gn path4gn plot3D8gn plot8cgn pos2pos position4gn range8pos read8gn relation4gn rgn rmar4gn rmnd4gn write8gn

rbsb3k("reset");

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
g4n3k <- function(whi)
#TITLE assigns the constants for the g4n layer
#DESCRIPTION
# defines or returns the constants used within /rbsbgn/. 
# The performed action depends on the argument.
#DETAILS
# All constant names start with 'g4n.'.
# This solution was adopted to replace
# a set of global constants that I had difficulty
# to make acceptable with R packages standards.
# It is recommended not to modify these constants
# unless you are completely aware of the consequences.\cr
# The constants can be any object type.
#PKEYWORDS helpful
#KEYWORDS misc
#INPUTS
#{whi}    <<a character(1) indicating either to reset or
#           to return the names or the current values. The possible
#           values are \code{RESET}, \code{reset}, \code{names}, \code{definitions} or \code{values}.>>
# >>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# When \code{whi=="RESET"} nothing (but the assignments are
# performed for all layers \code{rbsb} and \code{g4n}).
# When \code{whi=="reset"} nothing (but the assignments of 
# the layer \code{g4n} are performed).
# When \code{whi=="names"} the names as a character vector.
# When \code{whi=="definitions"} the definitions as a named character vector.
# When \code{whi=="values"} the values through a named list.
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# print(g4n.msi);
## to get the short labels
# g4n3k("names");
## to obtain the current values
# g4n3k("values");
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 09_10_13
#REVISED 09_11_05
#--------------------------------------------
{
# checking
if (!(whi %in% c("RESET","reset","names","definitions","values"))) {
    print.default(whi);
    stop("g4n3k does not accept this argument");
}
#
if (whi=="RESET") { rbsb3k("RESET");}
#
# definition of the different constants
sc <- character(0);
sc["mck"] <- "Must systematic checks be done?";
sc["mwa"] <- "Must warning be simple warning?";
sc["msi"] <- "g4n signature";
sc["arc0"] <- "null /arc/"; 
sc["pam0"] <- "null /pam/"; 
sc["pam1"] <- "Example 1 of /pam/"; 
sc["pos0"] <- "current /pos/"; 
sc["pgr0"] <- "current /pgr/"; 
sc["gn0"] <- "null /gn/"; 
sc["gn1"] <- "Example 1 of /gn/"; 
sc["gn2"] <- "Example 2 of /gn/"; 
sc["gn3"] <- "Example 3 of /gn/"; 
sc["gn4"] <- "Example 4 of /gn/"; 
sc["gn5"] <- "Example 5 of /gn/"; 
sc["gn6"] <- "Example 6 of /gn/"; 
sc["gn7"] <- "Example 7 of /gn/"; 
#
# returning the names
#
if (whi=="names") { return(names(sc));}
#
# returning the definitions
#
if (whi=="definitions") { return(sc);}
#
# returning the values
#
if (whi=="values") {
    res <- vector("list",0);
    for (ii in bf(sc)) {
        noco <- names(sc)[[ii]];
cat(noco,"\n");
        eee <- paste("res[[\"",noco,"\"]] <- g4n.",noco,";",sep="");
        eval(parse(text=eee));
    }
    return(res);
}
#
# loading the standard values
#
if (tolower(whi)=="reset") {
    #
    assign("g4n.mck", TRUE,pos=".GlobalEnv");
    assign("g4n.mwa", TRUE,pos=".GlobalEnv");
    assign("g4n.msi","/g4n/",pos=".GlobalEnv");
    #
    assign("g4n.arc0",new("arc",nbn=0,fle=matrix(NA,0,3)),pos=".GlobalEnv");
    assign("g4n.pam0",new("pam",rlt=matrix(NA,0,0)),pos=".GlobalEnv");
    assign("g4n.pam1",new("pam",rlt=matrix(c(rep(0,10),1,1,0,rep(c(0,0,0,0,1),2),1,0),5)),pos=".GlobalEnv");
    assign("g4n.pos0",new("pos",
                                    posi=matrix(NA,0,4),
                                    view=c(0,0),
                                    zoom=c(0,0,0,1)
                                                ),pos=".GlobalEnv");
    assign("g4n.pgr0",new("pgr"),pos=".GlobalEnv");
    #
    assign("g4n.gn0",new("gn",
                 description=char2des("Null /gn/"),
                 nom=rbsb.nom0, 
                 item="n",
                 pos=g4n.pos0,
                 arc=g4n.arc0,
                 pgr=g4n.pgr0),pos=.GlobalEnv);
    assign("g4n.gn1",new("gn",
                 description=char2des("Example 1 of /gn/"),
                 nom=rbsb.nom1, 
                 item="n",
                 pos=new("pos",posi=matrix(c(1,2,1,1,2,2,0,0,0,2,1,1),3)),
                 arc=new("arc",nbn=3,fle=matrix(c(1,2,211),1)),
                 pgr=g4n.pgr0),pos=.GlobalEnv);
    assign("g4n.gn2",new("gn",
                 description=char2des("Example 2 of /gn/"),
                 nom=rbsb.nom2, 
                 item="v",
                 pos=new("pos",posi=matrix(c(1,2,2,2,1,1,2,3,rep(0,4),rep(2,4)),4)),
                 arc=new("arc",nbn=4,fle=matrix(c(1,2,211),1)),
                 pgr=g4n.pgr0),pos=.GlobalEnv);
    assign("g4n.gn3",new("gn",
                 description=char2des("Example 3 of /gn/"),
                 nom=rbsb.nom3, 
                 item="v",
                 pos=new("pos",posi=matrix(c(1,2,1,2,1,2,
                                             1,1,2,2,3,3,
                                             rep(0,6),rep(2,6)),6)),
                 arc=new("arc",nbn=6,fle=matrix(c(1,2,3,4,5,
                                                  2,3,4,5,6,
                                                  rep(211,5)),5)),
                 pgr=g4n.pgr0),pos=.GlobalEnv);
    assign("g4n.gn4",new("gn",
                 description=char2des("Example 4 of /gn/"),
                 nom=rbsb.nom4, 
                 item="n",
                 pos=new("pos",posi=matrix(c(1,2,1,2,
                                             rep(0,2),rep(2,2)),2)),
                 arc=new("arc",nbn=2,fle=matrix(c(1,2,
                                                  rep(211,1)),1)),
                 pgr=g4n.pgr0),pos=.GlobalEnv);
    assign("g4n.gn5",new("gn",
                 description=char2des("Example 5 of /gn/"),
                 nom=rbsb.nom5, 
                 item="n",
                 pos=new("pos",posi=matrix(c(1,2,1,2,
                                             rep(0,2),rep(2,2)),2)),
                 arc=new("arc",nbn=2,fle=matrix(c(1,2,
                                                  rep(211,1)),1)),
                 pgr=g4n.pgr0),pos=.GlobalEnv);
    assign("g4n.gn6",new("gn",
                 description=char2des("Example 6 of /gn/"),
                 nom=new("nom",x=cha2li(letters[1:6],nam=LETTERS[1:6])), 
                 item="n",
                 pos=new("pos",posi=matrix(c(1,1,1,2,2,2,
                                             1,2,3,1,2,3,
                                             rep(0,6),rep(2,6)),6)),
                 arc=new("arc",nbn=6,fle=matrix(c(1,4,1,2,5,6,
                                                   rep(211,3)),3)),
                 pgr=g4n.pgr0),pos=.GlobalEnv);
    assign("g4n.gn7",new("gn",
                 description=char2des("Example 7 of /gn/"),
                 nom=new("nom",x=cha2li(letters[1:10],nam=LETTERS[1:10])), 
                 item="n",
                 pos=new("pos",posi=matrix(c(1,1,1,2,2,2,3,3,3,3,
                                             1,2,3,1,2,3,1,2,3,4,
                                             rep(0,10),rep(2,10)),10)),
                 arc=new("arc",nbn=10,fle=matrix(c(1,1,1,2,8,10,10,5,
                                                   2,5,4,3,6, 6, 9,6,
                                                   rep(211,8)),8)),
                 pgr=g4n.pgr0),pos=.GlobalEnv);
}
#
# Completing the series of null objects
rbsb.null <- c(rbsb.null,c("g4n.arc0","g4n.pam0","g4n.pgr0",
                           "g4n.pos0","g4n.gn0"));    
assign("rbsb.null",rbsb.null,pos=.GlobalEnv);
#
# Completing the series of sets of constants
rbsb.pko <- c(rbsb.pko,"g4n");    
assign("rbsb.pko",rbsb.pko,pos=.GlobalEnv);
#
invisible();
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
parcours8gn <- function(gn,blocked=character(0),imon=TRUE)
#TITLE find the ascendances until blocking 
#DESCRIPTION
# exploring the parentship, returns a matrix with
# rows associated to nodes giving their ancestors
# until (if possible) the first blocking node
#DETAILS
# In a first step the matrix of chidrenhood is
# calculated which can be expansive when the number
# of nodes is high.
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn genealogy
#INPUTS
#{gn} <<The gn object to be dealt>>
#[INPUTS]
#{blocked} <<(= character(0)) those nodes
#              which are reference node for
#              blocking>>
#{imon} <<(=TRUE) must blocked node be included?>>
#VALUE
# A square matrix. Its rows corresponds to every node.
# Its columns are associated to possible
# ascendants: 0 if not, 1 if it is. The node itself is not included 
# that is the diagonal elements are zero. The row and column order are
# those of iin; the dimnames of this matrix are given by the node names.
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# parcours8gn(g4n.gn7);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO genea
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
# It could be more logical (and efficient when the number
# of nodes is important) that the value was a list of vectors
# and not a matrix which can be very sparse.
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_09_18
#REVISED 09_06_17
#--------------------------------------------
{
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
# initialization
nbno <- nbnv(gn,gn@item); par <- res <- matrix(0,nbno,nbno);
par <- t(arc2pam(gn@arc)@rlt);
if (gn@item=="n") {
    moni <- nv2ion(blocked,gn@nom,"n",check=FALSE)@nk;
    nnom <- nanv(gn@nom,"n");
} else {
    moni <- nv2ion(blocked,gn@nom,"N",check=FALSE)@vk;
    nnom <- nanv(gn@nom,"v");
}
# loop for every node
for (jbd in 1:nbno) { if (!is.element(jbd,moni)) {
    qui <- numeric(0);
    ppp <- which(par[,jbd]==1);
    qui <- setdiff(union(qui,ppp),moni);
    ajout <- 1;
    if (length(qui) > 0) {while (length(ajout) > 0) {
        ajout <- numeric(0);
        for (jd in 1:length(qui)) {

            pp <- which(par[,qui[jd]]==1);
            ajout <- setdiff(union(ajout,pp),union(qui,moni));
        }
        qui <- union(qui,ajout);
    }}
    res[jbd,qui] <- 1;
}}
# including blocked nodes
if (imon) { for (jbd in 1:nbno) { if (!is.element(jbd,moni)) {
    bord <- c(jbd,which(res[jbd,]==1));
    if (length(bord) == 0) { erreur("from parcours8gn","Must comprise at least one node!");}
    mm <- numeric(0);
    for (jd in bord) {
        mm <- union(mm,intersect(which(par[,jd]==1),moni));
    }
    res[jbd,mm] <- 1;
}}}
# returning
dimnames(res) <- list(nnom,nnom);
res;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
rmnd4gn <- function(gn,nk)
#TITLE removes a series of nodes from a gn object
#DESCRIPTION
# Removing the nodes and arcs associated to them,
# adjusting the slot arc consequently. Awaiting
# for the generalization of item in /gn/s, only 
# node /gn/, i.e. [email protected]='n' are accepted here.
#DETAILS
# the initial @nom slot is reduced.
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn
#INPUTS
#{gn}<</gn/ object to be modified.>>
#{nk} <<vector of number nodes to remove. Must be
#        given in 'nk' form (see nv2ion).>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# The reduced object gn
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# print(rmnd4gn(g4n.gn1,1));
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#????
# In fact there is another (also very interesting) way to remove a node; it 
# consists not to remove node and associated arcs, but to transform the arcs
# of the parents and children nodes to keep the transmission (more precisely,
# indirect links can become direct ones). Must also be implemented.
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_09_06
#REVISED 09_10_20
#--------------------------------------------
{
# checking
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
# some preparation
if (is.character(nk)) {
    nk <- nv2ion(nk,gn@nom,check=FALSE)@nk;
}
items <- gn2item(gn,check=FALSE);
nnrr <- nrow(gn@arc@fle);
if (nnrr > 0) {
    aa <- matrix(items[gn@arc@fle[,1:2]],nnrr);
} else { aa <- matrix(NA,0,0);}
nk <- sort(unique(nk));
mk <- setdiff(bf(items),nk);
n2r <- items[nk];
n2k <- setdiff(items,n2r);
# removing the nodes in the slot nom
for (ii in bf(n2r)) {
    gn@nom <- rmnd4nom(gn@nom,n2r[ii]);
}
# removing the corresponding positions
gn@pos@posi <- gn@pos@posi[mk,,drop=FALSE];
# removing the corresponding arcs under variable names
# to avoid a difficult permutation to apply
r2r <- numeric(0);
for (ii in bc(nrow(aa))) {
    if (!(aa[ii,1] %in% n2k)) { r2r <- c(r2r,ii);}
    if (!(aa[ii,2] %in% n2k)) { r2r <- c(r2r,ii);}
}
r2r <- unique(r2r);
r2k <- setdiff(bc(nrow(aa)),r2r);
# here the numbers must be renumbered
nou <- bf(items);
for (ii in bf(items)) {
    nou[ii] <- ii - sum(nk < ii);
}
gn@arc@fle <- gn@arc@fle[r2k,,drop=FALSE];
gn@arc@fle[,1:2] <- nou[gn@arc@fle[,1:2]];
gn@arc@nbn <- length(n2k);
# returning
gn;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
rmar4gn <- function(gn,ion)
#TITLE removes a series of arcs from a gn object
#DESCRIPTION
# Removing the arcs associated to a subset of nodes,
# but keeping the nodes (contrary to rmnd4gn)
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn
#INPUTS
#{gn}<<object gn defining the pruned graph>>
#{ion} <<vector of nodes the arc of which must be 
#        be removed, either the names or the
#        internal identification.>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# The reduced object gn
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# uu <- g4n.gn1;
# print([email protected]);
# print(rmar4gn(uu,"A")@arc);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO rmnd4gn
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_09_17
#REVISED 09_06_17
#--------------------------------------------
{
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
# translating into numbers
if (gn@item=="n") {
    qui <- nv2ion(ion,gn@nom,"n",check=FALSE)@nk;
} else {
    qui <- nv2ion(ion,gn@nom,"N",check=FALSE)@vk;
}
# detecting the arcs to remove
iuq <- numeric(0);
# just removing the related arcs
if (length(qui > 0)) { for (ar in bc(nrow(gn@arc@fle))) {
    afr <- gn@arc@fle[ar,1]; ato <- gn@arc@fle[ar,2];
    if (is.element(afr,qui) | is.element(ato,qui)) {
        iuq <- c(iuq,ar);
    }
}}
if (length(iuq) > 0) { gn@arc@fle <- gn@arc@fle[-iuq,,drop=FALSE];}
# returning
gn;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
gn2item <- function(gn,check=FALSE)
#TITLE returns the item names of a /gn/ object
#DESCRIPTION
# (see slot @item of /gn/.)
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn
#INPUTS
#{gn} <<The gn object.>>
#[INPUTS]
#{check} <<Must checking be undertaken (conditionally
#          to \code{g4n.mck}).>>
#VALUE
# a character providing the item names.
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# gn2item(g4n.gn1);
# gn2item(g4n.gn2);
# gn2item(g4n.gn7);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
# This function has been produced for future
# evolutions of the /gn/ items. Not only 
# nodes or variables as presently.
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 09_05_06
#REVISED 09_05_06
#--------------------------------------------
{
# checking
if (check) { if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}}
# creating
res <- nanv(gn,gn@item);
# returning
res;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
plot8cgn <- function(gn,xy)
#TITLE draws nodes and arcs of a gn with already computed xy values
#DESCRIPTION
# Internal drawing of plot.gn, isolated because it
# can be used for multiple plots. The plot is supposed
# to be already open and the coordinates of nodes already
# prepared. See plot8gn for the details about decorations.
#DETAILS
# The reason of xy besides the @pos of the gn object is to
# give the possibility of different projections with the 
# same positions.
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS plot gn
#INPUTS
#{gn} <<The gn to plot>>
#{xy} <<Matrix of (x,y) (nbn x 2) coordinates for the nodes.>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
#  returns nothing but something is drawn on the open plot
#EXAMPLE
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO plot.gn
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_06_27
#REVISED 09_10_20
#--------------------------------------------
{
# checking
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
if (!all(dim(xy) == c(nbnv(gn,gn@item),2))) {
    erreur(NULL,"xy not consistent in dimensions!");
}
# getting the node/variable names
nom <- gn2item(gn);
# ancillary function(s)
raccou <- function(x0,y0,x1,y1,di=gn@pgr@diar) {
  c(geom3pointi(x0,y0,x1,y1,di),
    geom3pointi(x1,y1,x0,y0,di));
}
nbno <- nbnv(gn,gn@item);
if (nbno < 2) {
    erreur(nbno,"For this number of nodes no graph is issued",w=g4n.mwa);
    return(invisible);
}
nbar <- nrow(gn@arc@fle);
# drawing the nodes
for (i in bc(nbno)) {
    xx <- xy[i,1]; yy <- xy[i,2];
    la <- nom[i]; de <- gn@pos@posi[i,4];
    text(xx,yy,la,cex=gn@pgr@cexscale);
    if (!is.na(de)) {
        tail <- 6*gn@pgr@cexscale;
        if (de == 1) { points(xx,yy,pch=22,cex=tail);}
        if (de == 2) { points(xx,yy,pch=21,cex=tail);}
    }
}
# drawing the arcs
for (i in bc(nbar)) {
    n1 <- gn@arc@fle[i,1]; n2 <- gn@arc@fle[i,2];
    ax <- raccou(xy[n1,1],xy[n1,2],
                 xy[n2,1],xy[n2,2]);
    # style of the arcs
    com <- gn@arc@fle[i,3];
    # getting the heads, line type and width of the arrows
    code <- com %/% 100; com <- com - 100*code;
    code <- round(code); code <- min(max(code,0),3);
    lty <- com %/% 10; com <- com - 10*lty;
    lty <- round(lty); lty <- min(max(lty,0),6);
    lwd <- com; lwd <- min(max(lwd,0.5),5);
    arrows(ax[1],ax[2],ax[3],ax[4],
           length=gn@pgr@arrowlength,
           lwd=lwd,lty=lty,code=code);
}
invisible();    
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
cycles4gn <- function(gn)
#TITLE reduces the graph to the portion with cycles
#DESCRIPTION
# Just removing from the graph those nodes (and
# associated arcs) which cannot belong to a cycle
# because they are extreme (either without parent or
# without children).\cr
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn genealogy
#INPUTS
#{gn}<<object gn defining the graph>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# The reduced object gn
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# cycles4gn(g4n.gn7); # returns the null /gn/
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
# The graph associated to a BN must reduce to nothing
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_09_06
#REVISED 07_09_07
#--------------------------------------------
{
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
rn <- 1;
# loop for removing the nodes
while ((rn > 0) & (nbnv(gn,gn@item) > 0)) {
    rn <- 0;
    nar <- nrow(gn@arc@fle);
    nbd <- nbnv(gn,gn@item);
    arc <- matrix(0,nbd,2);
    if (nar > 0) { for (ar in 1:nar) {
        arc[gn@arc@fle[ar,1],1] <- 1;
        arc[gn@arc@fle[ar,2],2] <- 1;
    }}
    crit <- arc[,1]+arc[,2];
    retire <- (1:nbd)[crit<2];
    rn <- length(retire);
    if (rn > 0) { gn <- rmnd4gn(gn,retire);}
}
# null case
if (nbnv(gn,gn@item)==0) { gn <- g4n.gn0;}
# returning
gn;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
path4gn <- function(gn,n1,n2,quel=1,elono=TRUE)
#TITLE reduces the graph to the portion in between two node sets
#DESCRIPTION
# Just removing from the graph those arcs (and nodes) which
# does not belong to a path going from a node to another one.\cr
# As graph comprising cycles can be introduced, both directions
# can be considered.
#DETAILS
# To get all descendants of n1, it suffices to put n2 as the complete
# set of nodes
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn genealogy
#INPUTS
#{gn} <<The object gn to consider.>>
#{n1} <<First node set to consider>>
#{n2} <<Second node set to consider>>
#[INPUTS]
#{quel} <<(=1) which directions to consider ? 
#           1 for n1 to n2; 2 for n2 to n1 and 3
#           for both directions>>
#{elono} <<(=TRUE) are eliminated other nodes ?>>
#VALUE
# The reduced object gn.
# Notice that if a node belongs to n1 (n2) but is not
# linked to any node of n2 (n1) it will be eliminated if elono is TRUE.
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# path4gn(g4n.gn7,"E","J",3,FALSE);
# plot(path4gn(g4n.gn7,"A",LETTERS[1:10],3,FALSE));
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
# The graph associated to a BN must not have path in both directions
# (because cycles are prohibited)
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_09_07
#REVISED 07_11_07
#--------------------------------------------
{
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
#
if (!is.element(quel,1:3)) { quel <- 1;}
if (gn@item=="n") {
    n1 <- nv2ion(n1,gn@nom,"n",check=FALSE)@nk;
    n2 <- nv2ion(n2,gn@nom,"n",check=FALSE)@nk;
} else {
    n1 <- nv2ion(n1,gn@nom,"N",check=FALSE)@vk;
    n2 <- nv2ion(n2,gn@nom,"N",check=FALSE)@vk;
}
# looking for lignee
if (length(n1)*length(n2) > 0) {
    bah <- numeric(0);
    lig <- minbar8gn(gn);
    for (jbd in 1:2) { 
    if ((quel==jbd) | (quel == 3)) {
	bas <- hau <- numeric(0);
        if (jbd == 1) { pa <- n1; en <- n2;}
        else          { pa <- n2; en <- n1;}
	for (i1 in pa) {
	    bas <- union(bas,which(lig[i1,] >= 0));
	}
	for (i2 in en) {
	    hau <- union(hau,which(lig[,i2] >= 0));
	}
        bah <- union(bah,intersect(bas,hau));
    }}
    if (elono) {
        gn <- rmnd4gn(gn,setdiff(1:nbnv(gn,gn@item),bah));
    }
    else {
        gn <- rmar4gn(gn,setdiff(1:nbnv(gn,gn@item),bah));
    }
}
gn;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
gn2path <- function(gn,d,a)
#TITLE returns all paths between two nodes
#DESCRIPTION
# To return all paths between two nodes, this function
# prepares the parentship matrix and calls
# the recursive function pam2path
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn genealogy
#INPUTS
#{gn} <<a gn object>>
#{d} <<departure node (ion)>>
#{a} <<arrival node (ion)>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# a list of vectors with all possible paths
# (nodes are identified by iins)
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# gn2path(g4n.gn7,"A","F");
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING {pam2path}
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_09_17
#REVISED 09_06_17
#--------------------------------------------
{
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
# getting the node numbers
d <- nv2ion(d,gn@nom,"n",check=FALSE)@nk;
a <- nv2ion(a,gn@nom,"n",check=FALSE)@nk;
if ((length(d) != 1) | (length(a) != 1)) {
    erreur(NULL,"Only ONE departure and ONE arrival nodes!");
}
# constructing the parentship matrix
mg <- arc2pam(gn@arc);
# calling pam2path and returning
pam2path(mg,d,a);
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
pam2gn <- function(pam,description=rbsb.des0,
                   nom=rbsb.cha0)
#TITLE from a pam object generates a gn object
#DESCRIPTION
# From a pam object (parentship matrix) generates a gn object. 
# Standard names can be provided for the nodes.
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn genealogy pam
#INPUTS
#{pam} <<The pam obect>>
#[INPUTS]
#{description} <<(=rbsb.des0) description for the future gn>>
#{nom} <<(=rbsb.cha0) Names for the nodes>>
#VALUE
# a gn object
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# pam2gn(g4n.pam1);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_09_27
#REVISED 09_10_20
#--------------------------------------------
{
# checking
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8pam(pam));}
if (isvide(description)) {
    description <-
    new("des",name=paste("From",deparse(substitute(pam))));
}
nbno <- nrow(pam@rlt);
if (nbno == 0) {
    res <- g4n.gn0;
} else {
    if (length(nom) < nbno) { nom <- form3names(nbno);
    } else { nom <- nom[1:nbno];}
    res <- new("gn",description=description,
                    nom=char2nom(nom),
                    item="n",
                    arc=pam2arc(pam),
                    pos=new("pos",posi=matrix(0,nbno,4),
                                  zoom=c(0,0,0,1),
                                  view=c(0,0)),
                    pgr=g4n.pgr0);
    res <- position4gn(res);
}
# returning
res;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
arc4gn <- function(gn,from,to,add=TRUE)
#TITLE adds or remove some arc(s) to or from a gn object
#DESCRIPTION
# Adds [removes] zero, one arc or a series of arcs to [from]
# a gn and returns the gn so modified. When arcs to add already
# exist, nothing is done. When arc to remove does not exist, 
# nothing is done.
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn
#INPUTS
#{gn} <<The gn object>>
#{from} <<vector of ion describing the starting nodes of the arcs to add
#         or remove. >>
#{to}   <<vector of ion describing the   ending nodes of the arcs to add
#         or remove. >>
#[INPUTS]
#{add} <<(=TRUE) Adding? (or removing).>>
#VALUE
# The modified gn object.
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# gn1 <- g4n.gn7;
# gn2 <- arc4gn(gn1,c("A","C"),c("E","E"));
# gg1 <- arc4gn(gn2,"A","B",FALSE);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_10_28
#REVISED 09_06_17
#--------------------------------------------
{
# checking
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
if (length(from) != length(to)) {
    erreur(list(from,to),"'from' and 'to' must have equal lengths");
}
# getting a iin coding
if (gn@item=="n") {
    ff <- nv2ion(from,gn@nom,"n",check=FALSE)@nk;
    tt <- nv2ion(to  ,gn@nom,"n",check=FALSE)@nk;
} else {
    ff <- nv2ion(from,gn@nom,"N",check=FALSE)@vk;
    tt <- nv2ion(to  ,gn@nom,"N",check=FALSE)@vk;
}
# modifying the structure
pam <- arc2pam(gn@arc);
add <- add * 1;
for (fl in bf(from)) {
    pam@rlt[ff[fl],tt[fl]] <- add;
}
gn@arc <- pam2arc(pam);
# returning
gn;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
relation4gn <- function(gn,rel,cl="equal")
#TITLE formats the arc of a gn from a relation matrix
#DESCRIPTION
# From a completely described gn and a matrix of
# scores between all nodes of it, modifies the format
# of the arcs to take into account the strength of 
# their relations.
#DETAILS
# (1) No arcs are added, only existing arcs are considered.\cr
# (2) The set of existing arcs is categorized into four
#     classes : poor (dashed), small (continuous 1),
#     medium (continuous 2) and strong (continuous 3).\cr
# (3) The classes are defined with three limits defined
#     by cl. cl = 'equal' divides the arcs into approximately
#     four equally numbered categories. cl = 'propto' divides the
#     range of categories into four equal scaled categories. 
#     cl = numeric(3) imposed the three limit to use.\cr
# (4) NA valued arcs by rel are valued as the "minimum - 1"
#     before determining the categories.
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn graph
#INPUTS
#{gn} <<The gn to be modified.>>
#{rel} <<The matrix of scores for the relationships. It is
#        a non symmetric matrix, rows are considered parents
#        of the columns.>>
#[INPUTS]
#{cl}<<(='equal') See the details section.>>
#VALUE The modified gn
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# g0 <- g4n.gn7;  
# nbn <- nbnv(g0,[email protected]);  
# gg <- relation4gn(g0,matrix(1:nbn^2,nbn));
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 08_10_16
#REVISED 08_10_16
#--------------------------------------------
{
# checking
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
if (!is.matrix(rel)) {
    erreur(rel,"'rel' is expected to be a matrix.");
}
nbn <- nbnv(gn,gn@item);
if (!all(dim(rel) == c(nbn,nbn))) {
    erreur(c(dim(rel),nbn),"Non compatible dimension for matrix rel.");
}
# extracting the fle matrix
fle <- gn@arc@fle;
# extracting the corresponding score values
kk <- fle[,1] + nbn*(fle[,2]-1);
sco <- rel[kk];
# replacing the missing values
if (sum(!is.na(sco)) == 0) {
    erreur(rel,"All relations of use are NA!");
}
mii <- min(sco,n.rm=TRUE);
sco[is.na(sco)] <- mii - 1;
# preparing the class limitis
if (is.character(cl)) {
    if (cl == "propto") {
        ra <- range(cl);
        cl <- seq(ra[1],ra[2],le=5)[-c(1,5)];
    } else {
        cl <- quantile(sco,seq(0,1,le=5)[-c(1,5)]);
    }
} else {
    if (!is.numeric(cl)) {
        erreur(cl,"cl must be character or numeric.");
    } else {
        if (length(cl) == 3) {
            cl <- sort(cl);
        } else { erreur(cl,"cl must be of length 3");}
    }
}
# modifying the format of the arcs
cla <- 1 + (sco > cl[1]) + (sco > cl[2]) + (sco > cl[3]);
lar <- 1 + (sco > cl[2]) + (sco > cl[3]);
typ <- 1 + (sco <= cl[1]);
gn@arc@fle[,3] <- 200 + 10*typ + lar;
# returning
gn;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
list2gn <- function(li)
#TITLE transforms a consistent list into a new /gn/ object
#DESCRIPTION
# Just analyzing the components of the list
# (consistent names have to be used) which are supposed
# to be character and tackle them to produce consistent
# slots of a /gn/ object...
# The main use of this function is to generate /gn/ read from text files
# with the function \code{read8gn}.
#DETAILS
# When \code{$item} does not exist, \code{@item} is computed
# from \code{$posi} if it exists if not from \code{$arc}.
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn
#INPUTS
#{li} <<The list to be transformed into a /gn/ object.
# Compulosory component is \code{$name}.
# Usual component is \code{$arc}.
# Possible components are \code{$posi} for the positions,
# \code{$item} for the node/variable names.
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# The generated /gn/ object
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # for R checking need
# print(list2gn(list(name="a",item=c("A","B"))));
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 09_04_06
#REVISED 10_06_17
#--------------------------------------------
{
# checking
if (g4n.mck) {
    check4tyle(li,"list",-1,message="The first argument must be a list");
}
#
# getting the gn description
na <- li$name;
if (isvide(na)) { erreur(li,"$name is compulsory");}
des <- list2des(li);
# getting the /nom/ of the /gn/
if (!isvide(li$item)) {
    itou <- li$item
} else {
    if (!isvide(li$posi)) {
        itou <- names(li$posi);
    } else {
        if (!isvide(li$arc)) {
            itou <- li$arc;
            itou <- paste(itou,collapse=">");
            itou <- form3etsil(itou,OPA="",CPA="",
                               opa="",cpa="",sep=">");
            itou <- sort(unique(itou));
        } else {
            itou <- rbsb.cha0;
        }
    }
}
nom <- char2nom(itou);
itou <- nanv(nom,0);
nbi <- length(itou);
#
# getting the type of the items
if (identical(nanv(nom,-1),itou)) {
    item <- "n";
} else { item <- "v";}
#
# getting the arc slot
fle <- matrix(NA,0,2);
for (ll in bf(li$arc)) {
    lu <-li$arc[ll];
    lulu <- form3decadre(strsplit(lu,">",fixed=TRUE)[[1]]);
    if (length(lulu) > 1) {
        if (length(unique(c(lulu,itou)))!=length(itou)) {
            erreur(list(itou,lulu),"Not all 'lulu' components are identified items");
        }
        nunu <- as.vector(outer(lulu,itou,"==") %*% bf(itou));
        fle <- rbind(fle,cbind(nunu[-length(nunu)],nunu[-1]));
    } else {
        erreur(lulu,"This string does not indicate an arc... as expected");
    }
}
if (nrow(fle)>0) { fle <- cbind(fle,211);
} else { fle <- matrix(NA,0,3);}
arc <- new("arc",nbn=nbi,fle=fle);
#
# introducing the positions
if (isvide(li$pos)) {
    kmi <- 1; while(kmi*kmi < nbi) { kmi <- kmi+1;}
    pos <- cbind(rep(1:3,3),rep(1:3,each=3))[sample(kmi*kmi,nbi,replace=FALSE),];
} else {
    if ((length(unique(names(li$pos),itou)) > nbi) |
        (length(li$pos) != nbi)) {
        erreur(list(nom,names(li$pos)),"Bad correspondence between items and positions");
    }
    # including the proposed positions
    nbco <- length(form3etsil(li$pos[[1]],
                                    OPA="",CPA="",opa="",cpa="",
                                    sep=" "));
    pos <- matrix(NA,0,nbco);
    for (pp in names(li$pos)) {
        upp <- form3etsil(li$pos[[pp]],
                                    OPA="",CPA="",opa="",cpa="",
                                    sep=" ");
        if (nbco != length(upp)) {
            erreur(list(pp,li$pos),"The 'pp' component has got a different lenght that the other ones");
        }
        pos <- rbind(pos,upp);
    }
}
if (any(is.na(as.numeric(pos)))) {
    erreur(li$pos,"Not all values are numeric!");
}
pos <- matrix(as.numeric(pos),ncol=ncol(pos));
if (ncol(pos)<2) {
    erreur(li$pos,"At least the two coordinates are expected");
}
if (ncol(pos)==2) { pos <- cbind(pos,0);}
if (ncol(pos)==3) { pos <- cbind(pos,2);}
pos <- new("pos",posi=pos);
# building it up
gn <- new("gn",description=des,nom=nom,item=item,
               pos=pos,arc=arc,pgr=g4n.pgr0);
# checking the result
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
# returning
gn;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
gn2list <- function(gn)
#TITLE transforms a /gn/ object into a list
#DESCRIPTION
# Just translating all slot of the /gn/ into
# associated components of a list.
# This is the reverse function of \code{list2gn}.
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn
#INPUTS
#{gn} <<The /gn/ to be transformed into a list.>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# The generated list
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # For R checking compliance
# gn2list(g4n.gn3);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 10_06_22
#REVISED 10_06_22
#--------------------------------------------
{
# some checks
if (g4n.mck) {
    che <- valid8gn(gn);
    if (!identical(che,TRUE)) {
        erreur(che,"/gn/ is not valid");
    }
}
#
# initializing the list
res <- vector("list",0);
#
# getting the gn description
for (dd in slotNames("des")) {
    res[[dd]] <- slot(gn@description,dd);
}
#
# getting the items
if (gn@item=="n") {
    nbit <- nbnv(gn,"n");
    item <- nv2ion(0,gn@nom,"n")@nn;
} else {
    nbit <- nbnv(gn,"v");
    item <- nv2ion(0,gn@nom,"v")@nvn;
}
res$item <- item;
#
# getting the arcs
res$arc <- rbsb.cha0;
for (aa in bc(nrow(gn@arc@fle))) {
    iaa <- gn@arc@fle[aa,1:2];
    res$arc <- c(res$arc,paste(item[iaa[1]],">",
                               item[iaa[2]],sep=""));
}
#
# getting the positions
res$pos <- vector("list",0);
for (pp in bc(nbit)) {
    res$pos[[item[pp]]] <- paste(gn@pos@posi[pp,],collapse=" ");
}
# returning
res;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
write8gn <- function(gn,fi=rbsb.fou,ap=FALSE)
#TITLE writes a /gn/ to file
#DESCRIPTION
# writes a /gn/ objects to a file to be
# readable with \code{read8gn}
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn
#INPUTS
#{gn} <<The /gn/ to be written.>>
#[INPUTS]
#{fi} <<name of the file to be written.
#       When \code{rbsb.cha0} no file is
#       written but a charecter is returned.>>
#{ap} <<Must an existing file be appended?>>
#VALUE
# nothing but a file is created or modified
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # For R checking compliance
# write8gn(g4n.gn3);
# readLines(rbsb.fou);
# unlink(rbsb.fou);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 10_06_22
#REVISED 10_06_30
#--------------------------------------------
{
# some checks
if (g4n.mck) {
    che <- valid8gn(gn);
    if (!identical(che,TRUE)) {
        erreur(che,"/gn/ is not valid");
    }
}
#
# creating the list
lili <- gn2list(gn);
#
# adapting the list for a standard use of list2file
#
# writing the file and returning
list2file(lili,fi,
               tags=rbsb.tag2,
               ap=ap);
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
position4gn <- function(gn,heur="a")
#TITLE proposes positions for the nodes of a gn object
#DESCRIPTION
# Following some heuristics computes new positions for a /gn/
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn plot
#INPUTS
#{gn} <<gn object>>
#[INPUTS]
#{heur} <<(='a') indicates which heuristic must be used.
#         (a) for acp on the arc,
#         (h) adapted for hierarchical trees from roots,
#         (h2) idem but with vertical alternance,
#         (H) adapted for hierarchical trees from leafs,
#         (H2) idem but with vertical alternance.
#VALUE
# The same 'gn' object with the new positions
#REFERENCE
#FUTURE 
# Ideas for more heuristics
#{*} <<add two other axes>>
#{*} <<Random>>
#{*} <<on a lattice with some heuristic>>
#{*} <<on concentric circles around a given node,
#      possibly chosen for its properties>>
#{*} <<take into account the direction of arcs>>
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
# The algorithm does not seem very effective! Think about other ideas.
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_05_22
#REVISED 09_10_16
#--------------------------------------------
{
# some checks
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
heurp <- c("a","h","h2","H","H2");
if (sum(heur==heurp)!=1) {
    erreur(list(heur,heurp),"argument 'heur' took an inexpected value");
}
# constructing the relationship matrix
eps <- 0.00001;
np <- nbnv(gn,gn@item);
if (np <= 0) {return(gn);}
if (heur=="a") {
    fleches <- gn@arc@fle;
    if (nrow(fleches) > 0) { 
        rrr <- matrix(0,np,np);
        for (i in 1:np) { rrr[i,i] <- 2;}
        for (i in 1:nrow(fleches)) { rrr[fleches[i,1],fleches[i,2]] <- 1;}
        rrr <- rrr + t(rrr) + eps;
        # deducing a distance matrix
        rrr <- 1/rrr - 1/max(rrr);
        # centring the distance matrix
        uu <- apply(rrr,1,mean);
        nn <- rep(1,np);
        rrr <- rrr - outer(uu,nn) - outer(nn,uu) + mean(rrr);
        # finding its first singular vector
        vv <- svd(rrr)$u[,1];
        # deducing the order
        oo <- order(vv);
    }
    else { # no arc
        oo <- 1:np;
    }
    # computing the new positions
    theta <- (1:np)*2*pi/np;
    theta <- theta[oo];
    gn@pos@posi <- cbind(cos(theta),sin(theta),0,0);
    gn@pos@zoom <- c(0,0,0,1);
    gn@pos@view <- rep(0,2);
}
#
if (heur%in% c("h","h2","H","H2")) {
    root <- expr3present("h",heur);
    altv <- expr3present("2",heur);
    if (cycle8pam(gn@pam)) {
        erreur(gn,paste("This graph has got cycle(s), use another heurisitics that",heur));
    }
    ax <- function(x) { if(diff(range(x))>0) {(x-min(x))/(max(x)-min(x));}else{0.5;}}
    # finding the roots
    nbn <- nbnv(gn,gn@item);
    nopla <- ends8gn(gn);
    roots  <- c(nopla$RwL,nopla$RaL);
    leaves <- c(nopla$LwR,nopla$RaL);
    if (length(roots) == 0) {
        rapport("No root for this gn but no cycles were previously detected?");
    }
    if (length(leaves) == 0) {
        rapport("No leave for this gn but no cycles were previously detected?");
    }
    # finding the minimum distance to the roots or leaves as ordinates
    dd <- minbar8gn(gn);
    dd[dd<=0] <- max(dd);
    X <- Y <- rep(NA,nbn);
    Y[roots] <- 0;
    for (ii in bc(nbn)) { if (is.na(Y[ii])) {
        Y[ii] <- min(dd[roots,ii]);
    }}
    # scoring successively the abscissae
    X[roots] <- ax(bf(roots));
    nbe <- max(Y);
    for (ii in bc(nbe)) { if (length(Y==ii)>0) {
        qq <- which(Y==ii);
        rr <- rep(0,length(qq));
        for (jj in bf(qq)) {
            jjj <- qq[jj];
            for (kk in bc(nbn)) { if (!is.na(X[kk])) {
                rr[jj] <- rr[jj] + X[kk]*(dd[kk,jjj]==ii);
            }}
        }
        X[qq] <- ax(rr);
    }}
    if (!root) {
        # modifying the ordinates accordingly
        Y <- NA;
        Y[leaves] <- 0;
        for (ii in bc(nbn)) { if (is.na(Y[ii])) {
            Y[ii] <- min(dd[ii,leaves]);
        }}
    }
    if (altv) {
        # alternating vertically
        ry <- range(Y);
        for (y in ry[1]:ry[2]) {
            sel <- which(Y==y);
            if (length(sel) > 1) {
                qui <- sel[(rank(X[sel]) %% 2) == 0];
                Y[qui] <- Y[qui]+0.25;
            }
        }
    }
    # constructing the gn
    gn@pos@posi <- cbind(X,Y,0,0);
    gn@pos@zoom <- c(0,0,0,1);
    gn@pos@view <- rep(0,2);
}
# returning
gn;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
plot3D8gn <- function(gn,...)
#TITLE plots an object gn according to its 3 dimensions
#DESCRIPTION
# The figure is divided into 4 quadrants, 3 of them are used to 
# draw the graph according to its (X,Y), (X,Z) and (Z,Y) coordinates
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS plot gn
#INPUTS
#{gn} <<the gn to plot>>
#[INPUTS]
#{...} <<to give when first calling to the standard plot function>>
#VALUE
#  returns nothing but a plot is drawn
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# plot3D8gn(g4n.gn7);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING {plot8cgn} 
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
# In the last quadrant, plots the ACP with the first two axis derived 
# from the pseudo-distance given by mindis8pam (or pam matrix)...
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_07_17
#REVISED 07_11_07
#--------------------------------------------
{
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
  # preparing the plots
  nbno <- length(gn@nom);
  mm <- 0.1; ra <- rep(NA,3);
  for (i in 1:3) { ra[i] <- diff(range(gn@pos@posi[,i])); }
  ma <- mm*ra;
  mi <- ra[3]+2*ma[3];
  xr <- c(0,ra[1]+2*ma[1]+mi);
  yr <- c(0,ra[2]+2*ma[2]+mi);
  plot(0,0,xlim=xr,ylim=yr,type="n",
       axes=FALSE,xlab="",ylab="",...);
  # axis
  text(xr[2],mi,"X",cex=3);
  text(mi,yr[2],"Y",cex=3);
  text(xr[1],mi,"Z",cex=3);
  text(mi,yr[1],"Z",cex=3);
  abline(h=mi);abline(v=mi);
  # last quadrant
  xgr <- mi/2; ygr <- mi/2;
  tgr <- paste(nbno,"nodes and",nrow(gn@arc@fle),"arcs");
  text(xgr,ygr,tgr);

  # drawing nodes and arcs (X,Y)
  gd <- gn; 
  calage <- c(mi+ma[1]-min(gd@pos@posi[,1]),
              mi+ma[2]-min(gd@pos@posi[,2]));
  xy <-  gn@pos@posi[,1:2] + 
                  matrix(calage,nbno,2,byrow=TRUE);
  plot8cgn(gd,xy);
  # drawing nodes and arcs (X,Z)
  gd <- gn; 
  calage <- c(mi+ma[1]-min(gd@pos@posi[,1]),
                 ma[3]-min(gn@pos@posi[,3]));
  xy <- gn@pos@posi[,c(1,3)] +
                 matrix(calage,nbno,2,byrow=TRUE);
  plot8cgn(gd,xy);
  # drawing nodes and arcs (Z,Y)
  gd <- gn; 
  calage <- c(ma[3]-min(gd@pos@posi[,3]),
              mi+ma[2]-min(gd@pos@posi[,2]));
  xy <- gn@pos@posi[,c(3,2)] +
                  matrix(calage,nbno,2,byrow=TRUE);
  plot8cgn(gd,xy);
invisible();    
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
rgn <- function(des,type="hier",
                 nno=c(5,10),nar=c(10,20),
                 nom=LETTERS,dire="nat",lev=1)
#TITLE creates a pseudo-random gn object
#DESCRIPTION
#      Creates a gn object which characteristics are
# randomly generated following the requirements of the call.
# Also positions illuminating the struture are proposed.
# Normally the produced gn is connected and without cycles.
# When the request is not possible, a warning is issued and
# some compatible option is provided. Using this function with
# the same set.seed starting point (and the same request) must 
# produce identical gn.\cr
# Different types of gn are possible, their characteristics
# are given by arguments and pseudo-randomness. The type argument
# describes the structure of the links without care about the
# directions (as edges). The possible types are:\cr
#{chain} <<All nodes are aligned in a simple chain. So a relationship
#          exists between nno and nar: nno = nar +1. Then nno will
#          be drawn and nar deduced.>>
#{ring} <<Like the chain type but a cycle is done with the
#         relationships and nno = nar.>>
#{hier} <<A hierarchy in the sense that the nodes can be disposed in
#         a dendrogram structure; a particular case of this is the "star"
#         structure when there only a branching point and the branches can
#         comprise several nodes.>>
#{audit} <<A hierarchy with two levels. For this specific case, 'nno' is 
#          the number of grouping levels and 'nar' is the number of 
#          terminal nodes for each grouping levels. Names of nodes are
#          determined accordingly.>>
#{square} <<Not so simple to describe. Nodes are placed in the cell of
#           square matrix and edges between nodes respects this structure.
#           Arcs (including their number) are deduced from the node
#           positions. Run some cases and you will understand seing the 
#           plot.>>
#{tetra} <<Four of the nodes are on the vertices of a tetrahedron and the
#           other nodes are on its edges.>>
#{total} <<The maximum number of arcs, nno*(nno-1)/2, is provided.
#          So nar will not be considered.>>
# It is suggested that the seed be initialized before calling this function.
#DETAILS
#         Of course if too much arcs are ordered, the probability of a
#         non-cycle graph may be very small, even null.\cr
#         To prevent this, a local nb_trial limits the number of draws,
#         if this limit is reached then a fatal error is issued.\cr
#         For some type (e.g. "square"), the ordered number of arcs and nodes
#         may not be respected for some reasons.
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn
#INPUTS
#{des} <<Either the name or the description (preferably) for the 
#        newly created gn.>>
#[INPUTS]
#{type} <<type of the gn, see the description field for details>>
#{nno} << range within which must be the number of nodes. Of course
#         the range can be null, in that case the number of nodes is directly
#         provided by the user. If not, it is drawn according to a uniform
#         distribution (one integer from \code{nno[1]} to \code{nno[2]}).\cr
#         Single values are repeated, e.g \code{5} becomes \code{c(5,5)}.
#         When audit, it gives the number of grouping nodes.>>
#{nar} << range within which must be the number of arcs. Similar
#         to \code{nno} but \code{nno} being fixed \code{nar} must satisfy some constraints. These
#         constraints may also depend on the \code{type} of /gn/.\cr
#         When audit, it gives the number of nodes for each grouping nodes.\cr
#         Single values are repeated, e.g \code{5} becomes \code{c(5,5)}.>>
#{nom} <<vector of names to be used for the nodes.>>
#{dire} << indicates the directions of the arcs between the
#          nodes of a /gn/. There are two possibilities: "nat" for natural
#          directions and "ran" for random under the restriction of no 
#          cycles.\cr
#          For 'audit' the two choices are 'nat' for putting the first node
#          as root else it will be the synthesis.\cr
#          No effect when type ="ring".>>
#{lev} << maximum level of hierarchy; only used when \code{type} is "hier".>>
#VALUE
#EXAMPLE
# set.seed(1234);
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# r1 <- rgn(char2des("r1"),type="hier");
# r2 <- rgn(char2des("r2"),type="square");
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
# It is good to have only ONE rgn function, so that this one
# can generate a large variety of gns. Nevertheless, it is not
# that easy that the same collection of argument can apply to
# every one. An idea for the future could be to have only three
# arguments : des, type and argu where argu is a list where the 
# components might be different according to the type.
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_10_08
#REVISED 10_06_09
#--------------------------------------------
{
# some precautions
nno <- round(range(nno)); nar <- round(range(nar));
if (min(c(nno,nar)) < 1) {
    erreur(list(nno,nar),"At least one node and one arc are necessary!");
}
#
if (type=="audit") {
    # a new type differently based
    ## determining the number of grouping nodes
    if (nno[1]==nno[2]) {nbgn <- nno[1];
    } else { nbgn <- sample(nno[1]:nno[2],1);}
    ## determining the number of nodes within each
    if (nar[1]==nar[2]) { nbno <- rep(nar[1],nbgn);
    } else {
        nbno <- sample(nar[1]:nar[2],nbgn,replace=TRUE);
    }
    ## determining the names of the nodes
    nbn <- 1+nbgn+sum(nbno);
    if (length(nom) >= nbn) { noms <- nom[1:nbn];
    } else {
        noms <- rep(NA,nbn);
        if (dire=="nat") { noms[1] <- "<<SYNTH>>";
        } else { noms[1] <- "<<ROOT>>";}
        noms[1+1:nbgn] <- form3names(nbgn);
        KK <- 1+nbgn;
        for (i in 1:nbgn) {
            noms[KK+1:nbno[i]] <- paste(noms[1+i],"(",1:nbno[i],")",sep="");
            KK <- KK + nbno[i];
        }
        noms[1+1:nbgn] <- paste("<",noms[1+1:nbgn],">",sep="");
    }
    ## determining the positions
    posi <- matrix(0,nbn,4);
    posi[1,1]              <- 1;
    posi[1+1:nbgn,2]       <- -1;
    posi[1+1:nbgn,1]       <- (-1/2 + (1:nbgn))*2/nbgn;
    posi[-c(1:(nbgn+1)),2] <- -2;
    posi[-c(1:(nbgn+1)),1] <- (-1/2 + (1:sum(nbno)))*2/sum(nbno);
    ## determining the arcs for this gn
    nbar <- nbn-1;
    mar <- new8arc(nbn,nbar);
    mar@fle[1:nbgn,1:2] <- c(rep(1,nbgn),1+1:nbgn);
    KK <- nbgn;
    for (i in 1:nbgn) {
        mar@fle[KK+1:nbno[i],1] <- rep(1+i,nbno[i]);
        mar@fle[KK+1:nbno[i],2] <- 1+KK + (1:nbno[i]);
        KK <- KK + nbno[i];
    }
    if (dire == "nat") {
        uu <- mar@fle[,1];
        mar@fle[,1] <- mar@fle[,2];
        mar@fle[,2] <- uu;
    }
    pos <- new("pos",posi=posi,zoom=c(0,0,0,1),view=c(0,0));
    ## returning
    gg <- new("gn",
              description=char2des(des),
              nom=char2nom(noms),
              item="n",
              arc=mar,
              pos=pos,
              pgr=g4n.pgr0);
    return(gg);
}
# trying to avoid cycles
nb_trial <- 1000;
# numbers of nodes and arcs
if (nno[1] == nno[2]) { nbno <- nno[1];
} else { nbno <- sample(nno[1]:nno[2],1);}
if (type %in% c("chain","hier")) { nbar <- nbno - 1;
} else {
    if (type == "ring") { nbar <- nbno;
    } else {
        if (type == "total") { nbar <- nbno*(nbno-1)/2;
        } else {
            if (nar[1] == nar[2]) { nbar <- nar[1];
            } else { nbar <- sample(nar[1]:nar[2],1);}
        }
    }
}
# names for the nodes
if (length(nom) < nbno) { nom <- form3names(nbno);
} else { nom <- nom[1:nbno];}
# the different types
ltype <- c("chain","ring","hier","square","tetra","total","audit");
if (!(type %in% ltype)) {
    cat("You ask a gn of type",type,"but this type is not yet implemented\n");
    cat("Available type are:",ltype,"\n");
    erreur(NULL,"type not available!");
}
if (nbar > nbno*(nbno-1)/2) {
   nbar <- nbno*(nbno-1)/2 - 1;
}
mar <- new8arc(nbno,nbar);
posi <- matrix(0,nbno,4);
lim <- matrix(NA,2,3);
vie <- rep(0,2);
if (type == "chain") {
    for(jbd in 1:nbar) {
        if (dire == "nat") { fle <-  c(jbd,jbd+1);
        } else { fle <- sample( c(jbd,jbd+1),2);}
        mar@fle[jbd,1:2] <- fle;
    }
    pp <- arc2pam(mar);
    for(jbd in 1:nbno) {
         uu <- sum(pp@rlt[jbd,]) - sum(pp@rlt[,jbd]);
         posi[jbd,1:3] <- c(jbd,uu,0);
    }
}
if (type == "ring") {
    mar@fle[nbar,1:2] <- sample(c(nbar,1));
    for(jbd in 1:(nbar-1)) {
        mar@fle[jbd,1:2] <- sample( c(jbd,jbd+1),2);
    }
    if(cycle8pam(arc2pam(mar))) { mar@fle[1,1:2] <- mar@fle[1,c(2,1)];}
    for(jbd in 1:nbno) {posi[jbd,1:3] <- c(cos(2*pi/nbno*jbd),
                                       sin(2*pi/nbno*jbd),0);}
}
if (type == "hier") {
    # parentship
    enf <- rep(0,nbno); niv <- rep(NA,nbno); names(niv) <- nom;
    enf[1] <- niv[1] <- 0; nbf <- 1;
    for (jbd in 2:nbno) { while(is.na(niv[jbd])) {
        jd <- sample(which(!is.na(niv)),1);
        if ((niv[jd] <= lev) | (enf[jd] == 0)) {
            niv[jbd] <- niv[jd] + 1;
            enf[jd] <- enf[jd] + 1;
            mar@fle[jbd-1,1:2] <- c(jd,jbd);            
        }
    }}
    # positions
    mmm <- arc2pam(mar);
    xx <- yy <- rg <- rep(NA,nbno); names(rg) <- nom;
    mlev <- max(niv);
    xx[1] <- yy[1] <- 0; rg[1] <- 1;
    for (jbd in 1:mlev) {
        # dealing with level jbd
        qui <- which(niv == jbd);
        val <- rep(0,length(qui));
        for (jd in bf(qui)) {
            che <- pam2path(mmm,1,qui[jd])[[1]];
            ch <- che[-length(che)];
            for (sd in 1:length(ch)) {
                qq <- ch[sd];
                val[jd] <- val[jd] + rg[qq]*nbno^(mlev-niv[qq]);
            }
        }
        rg[qui] <- rank(val,ties.method="random");
        xx[qui] <- rg[qui] - mean(rg[qui]);
        yy[qui] <- -jbd;
    }
    posi <- cbind(xx,yy,rep(0,nbno),rep(0,nbno));
    # randomness
    if (dire == "ran") {
        for (jbd in 1:nrow(mar@fle)) {
            mar@fle[jbd,1:2] <- sample(mar@fle[jbd,1:2],2);
        }
    }
}
if (type == "square") {
    # square size
    k <- ceiling(sqrt(nbno));
    # ensuring connectedness
    ppo <- matrix(0,k,k);
    ppo[1,] <- 1:k; ppo[2:k,1] <- (k+1):(2*k-1);
    ppo <- ppo[sample(k),sample(k)];
    # positionning the remaining nodes
    for (jbd in bc(nbno-2*k+1)) {
        jd <- jbd + 2*k - 1;
        uu <- sample(nbno - jd + 1,1);
        vv <- which(ppo == 0)[uu];
        ppo[vv] <- jd;
    }
    # defining arcs and positions
    mar <- new8arc(nbno,0);
    for (i in bc(k)) { for (j in bc(k)) { if (ppo[i,j] > 0) {
        # by column
        if (i < k) {
            uu <- ppo[(i+1):k,j];
            if (sum(uu) > 0) {
                qq <- which(uu > 0)[1];
                mar@fle <- rbind(mar@fle,c(uu[qq],ppo[i,j],211));
            }
        }
        # by row
        if (j < k) {
            uu <- ppo[i,(j+1):k];
            if (sum(uu) > 0) {
                qq <- which(uu > 0)[1];
                mar@fle <- rbind(mar@fle,c(uu[qq],ppo[i,j],211));
            }
        }
        posi[ppo[i,j],1:3] <- c(k-j,i,0);
    }}}
    # randomness
    if (dire == "ran") {
        for (jbd in 1:nrow(mar@fle)) {
            mar@fle[jbd,1:2] <- sample(mar@fle[jbd,1:2],2);
        }
        ppa <- arc2pam(mar);
        nbt <- 1;
        while(cycle8pam(ppa)) {
            if (nbt > nb_trial) {
                erreur(NULL,"Seems difficult not to get cycles!");
            }
            nbt <- nbt + 1;
            for (jbd in 1:nrow(mar@fle)) {
                 mar@fle[jbd,1:2] <- sample(mar@fle[jbd,1:2],2);
            }
            ppa <- arc2pam(mar);
        }
    }
}
if (type == "tetra") {
    erreur(type,"to be done");
}
if (type == "total") {
    kk <- 0;
    for (jbd in 1:(nbno-1)) { for (jd in (jbd+1):nbno) {
        kk <- kk+1;
        mar@fle[kk,1:2] <- c(jbd,jd);
    }}
    for(jbd in 1:nbno) {posi[jbd,1:3] <- c(cos(2*pi/nbno*jbd),
                                       sin(2*pi/nbno*jbd),0);}
}
# returning
pos <- new("pos",posi=posi,zoom=c(0,0,0,1),view=c(0,0));
#
gg <- new("gn",
          description=char2des(des),
          nom=char2nom(nom),
          item="n",
          arc=mar,
          pos=pos,
          pgr=g4n.pgr0);
gg;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
modify4gn <- function(gn)
#TITLE interactive modifications of a gn
#DESCRIPTION
# graphical interface to modify (i) the positions, 
# (ii) the arcs and (iii) the nodes of an object of class gn.
# Besides, it provides the facility to change the viewpoint
# from which is drawn the graph (positions of a gn object
# are defined in R to the 3).
# \cr The modified gn is returned.
#\cr
# To exit, just click the grey button 'E'
#\cr
# Action are started by the left hand buttons. Their codes are:\cr
# "rst" for resetting (cancel all modifications),\cr
# "MN" for moving the position of a node (the user must click 
# twice: for indicating the node and then the new desired
# position),\cr
# "AA" for adding an arc (the user must click twice to indicate the
# starting node then the ending node), \cr
# "RA" for removing an existing arc (the user must click twice to
# indicate the arc to be removed), \cr
# "AN" for adding a node (the user must click once to indicate the
# position of the new node), its name is automatically provided 
# but can be changed afterwards, \cr
# "RN" for removing a node (the user must click once, on the node
# to be removed), \cr
# "+" for narrowing the zoom (the user must click once, on the point
# where the zoom must be centered; the zooming coefficient is 
# driven by the @[email protected] parameter),\cr
# "-" for widing the zoom (the user must click once, on the point
# where the zoom must be centered; the zooming coefficient is 
# driven by the @[email protected] parameter),\cr
# "Rot" for rotating the representation in R to the three (the
# user must click once, in the direction of the rotation and more or less
# close to the center to indicate the angle to perform; the two big 
# circles which appears on the diagram are associated to rotations of
# 5 and 10 degrees.
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS plot gn
#INPUTS
#{gn} <<the gn object gn to be interactively modifyed.>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# The modified gn by the actions performed by the user.
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
# The initial basic algorithm is inspired from some deal function (thanks to them)
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_05_22
#REVISED 09_05_06
#--------------------------------------------
{
# checking
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
# defining ancillary functions
quequoi <- function(point) {
    if (length(point) != 2) {
        erreur(NULL,paste("Expecting TWO coordinates, possibly the",
	"graphic device	is not open for interactive way?",
        "if so, just execute 'dev.off()'"));
    }
    # returns an integer.
    # if negative, it is the number of a pressed button
    # if positive, it is the number of the closest node
    if ((point[1] >= xre[2]) | (point[1] < xre[1])) {
        di <- (point[1] - posbut[,1])^2 + (point[2] - posbut[,2])^2;
        res <- -which(min(di) == di)[1];
    } else {
        di <- (point[1] - gd@pos@posi[,1])^2 + (point[2] - gd@pos@posi[,2])^2;
        res <- which(min(di) == di)[1];
    }
     res;
}
dessinne <- function() {
    #######################################################
    # recomputing necessary parameters for a new order
    #######################################################
    newp <- pos2pos(gd@pos);
    rara <- range8pos(newp);
    # ranges for the graph
    xre <- rara$x; yre <- rara$y;
    # global ranges
    mx <- (xre[2] - xre[1])*pbut;
    xr <- c(xre[1]-mx,xre[2]+mx);
    my <- (yre[2] - yre[1])*pbut;
    yr <- c(yre[1]-my,yre[2]+my);
    # indicating the view
    xvi <- (xr[1]+xre[1])/2;
    yvi <- yre[1] + 4*my;
    tvi <- paste("Theta =",
                 round(gd@pos@view[1]*180/pi),"deg.",
                 "    and    Phi =",
                 round(gd@pos@view[2]*180/pi),"deg.");
    # indicating the graph
    xgr <- xre[1] + 4*mx;
    ygr <- (yr[2]+yre[2])/2 + my*0.3;
    tgr <- paste(nbno,"nodes and",nrow(gd@arc@fle),"arc(s)",
                 "   {{{",round(gd@pos@zoom[4],1),"}}}");
    # indicating the contextual message
    xme <- xre[1] + 4*mx;
    yme <- (yr[1]+yre[1])/2 - my*0.3;
    # defining the positions and the sizes of the buttons
    posbut <- sizbut <- matrix(NA,nbut,2);
    for (i in 1:(nbut-1)) { 
	posbut[i,1] <- (xre[2]+xr[2])/2;
	posbut[i,2] <- yre[2] - i*my*1;
	sizbut[i,1] <- mx*kbut;
	sizbut[i,2] <- my*kbut;
    }
    posbut[nbut,1] <- (xre[1]+xr[1])/2;
    posbut[nbut,2] <- (yre[1]+yr[1])/2;
    sizbut[nbut,1] <- mx*kbut;
    sizbut[nbut,2] <- my*kbut;
    # defining the color of the buttons
    colbut <- matrix(c("white","black"),nbut,2,byrow=TRUE);
    # starting the plot
    plot(0,0,type="n",#axes=FALSE,
         xlim=xr,ylim=yr,
         xlab="",ylab="");
    # drawing the graph
    plot8cgn(gd,newp@posi[,1:2]);
    # adding a working frame
    abline(h=yre,lty=3); abline(v=xre,lty=3);
    # displaying the projection view
    text(xvi,yvi,tvi,srt=90);
    # displaying the graph traits
    text(xgr,ygr,tgr);
    # displaying the contextual message
    text(xme,yme,messa[message]);
    # displaying the buttons
    colbut[nbut,1] <- "gray";
    for (jd in 1:(nbut-1)) {
        if (mode==conbut[jd]) {colbut[jd,] <- c("black","white");
        } else { colbut[jd,] <- c("white","black"); }
    }
    for (jbd in 1:nbut) {
        symbols(posbut[jbd,1],posbut[jbd,2],
                rectangles=matrix(sizbut[jbd,],1,2),
                bg=colbut[jbd,1],
                add=TRUE,inches=FALSE);
        text   (posbut[jbd,1],posbut[jbd,2],
                labels=conbut[jbd],col=colbut[jbd,2]);
    }
list(xre=xre,yre=yre,posbut=posbut);
}
  nbno <- nbnv(gn,gn@item);
  # parametering the button sizes and some margin size
  pbut <- 0.10; kbut <- 0.8;
  # calibration of the rotation
  anglemax <- pi/2;
  # starting
  par(mfrow=c(1,1));
  messa <- c("(1/2) Click the node to move",
             "(2/2) Click where to move the node",
             "(1/2) Click the starting node",
             "(2/2) Click the ending node",
             "(1/2) Click the starting node",
             "(2/2) Click the ending node",
             "(1/1) Click where to put the new node",
             "(1/1) Click the node to remove",
             "(1/1) Click the center of the magnyfication",
             "(1/1) Click the center for the reduction",
             "(1/1) Click direction and angle of the rotation");
  names(messa) <- c("MN","MN2","AA","AA2",
                    "RA","RA2","AN","RN",
                    "+","-","Rot");
  # intitial mode  
  mode <- "MN"; message <- "MN";
  # defining the contents of the buttons
  nbut <- 10;
  conbut <- c("rst","MN","AA","RA","AN","RN","+","-","Rot","Exit");
  gd <- gn;
  ### BEGINNING OF MODIFICATION LOOP
  while(TRUE) {
    #######################################################
    # drawing an updated screen
    #######################################################
    uuu <- dessinne();
    xre <- uuu$xre; yre <- uuu$yre; posbut <- uuu$posbut;
    ########################################################
    # according to the mode different actions are awaited
    ########################################################
    # exiting
    if (mode == "Exit") { break;}
    # resetting
    if (mode == "rst") {
        gd <- gn; mode <- "MN"; next; message <- mode;
    }
    # moving a node
    if (mode=="MN") {
        mode <- "MN"; message <- mode; 
        uuu <-  dessinne();
        xre <- uuu$xre; yre <- uuu$yre; posbut <- uuu$posbut;
        # we must get the node to move
        ou <- unlist(locator(1));
        ni <- quequoi(ou);
        if (ni < 0) {
            if (-ni == nbut) { break;}
            mode <- conbut[-ni];  message <- mode;
            next;
        }
        # we must get the point to move there
        message <- "MN2"; 
        uuu <-  dessinne();
        xre <- uuu$xre; yre <- uuu$yre; posbut <- uuu$posbut;
        ou <- unlist(locator(1));
        nu <- quequoi(ou);
        if (nu < 0) {
            if (-nu == nbut) { break;}
            mode <- conbut[-nu]; message <- mode;
            next;
        } else {
            gd@pos@posi[ni,1:2] <- ou;
        }
    }
    # adding an arc
    if (mode=="AA") {
        mode <- "AA"; message <- mode; 
        uuu <-  dessinne();
        xre <- uuu$xre; yre <- uuu$yre; posbut <- uuu$posbut;
        # we must get the starting node
        ou <- unlist(locator(1));
        ni <- quequoi(ou);
        if (ni < 0) {
            if (-ni == nbut) { break;}
            mode <- conbut[-ni]; message <- mode;
            next;
        }
        # we must get the ending node
        message <- "AA2"; 
        uuu <-  dessinne();
        xre <- uuu$xre; yre <- uuu$yre; posbut <- uuu$posbut;
        ou <- unlist(locator(1));
        nj <- quequoi(ou);
        if (nj < 0) {
            if (-nj == nbut) { break;}
            mode <- conbut[-nj]; message <- mode;
            next;
        } else {
            pam <- arc2pam(gd@arc);
            pam@rlt[ni,nj] <- 1;
            gd@arc <- pam2arc(pam);
            mode <- "AA"; message <- mode; 
            uuu <-  dessinne();
            xre <- uuu$xre; yre <- uuu$yre; posbut <- uuu$posbut;
            next;
        }
    }
    # removing an arc
    if (mode=="RA") {
        mode <- "RA"; message <- mode; 
        uuu <-  dessinne();
        xre <- uuu$xre; yre <- uuu$yre; posbut <- uuu$posbut;
        # we must get the starting node
        ou <- unlist(locator(1));
        ni <- quequoi(ou);
        if (ni < 0) {
            if (-ni == nbut) { break;}
            mode <- conbut[-ni]; message <- mode;
            next;
        }
        # we must get the ending node
        message <- "RA2"; 
        uuu <-  dessinne();
        xre <- uuu$xre; yre <- uuu$yre; posbut <- uuu$posbut;
        ou <- unlist(locator(1));
        nj <- quequoi(ou);
        if (nj < 0) {
            if (-nj == nbut) { break;}
            mode <- conbut[-nj]; message <- mode;
            next;
        } else {
            pam <- arc2pam(gd@arc);
            pam@rlt[ni,nj] <- 0;
            gd@arc <- pam2arc(pam);
            mode <- "RA"; message <- mode; next;
        }
    }
    # adding a node
    if (mode=="AN") {
        mode <- "AN"; message <- mode; 
        uuu <-  dessinne();
        xre <- uuu$xre; yre <- uuu$yre; posbut <- uuu$posbut;
        # we must get where to put a supplementary node
        ou <- unlist(locator(1));
        ni <- quequoi(ou);
        if (ni < 0) {
            if (-ni == nbut) { break;}
            mode <- conbut[-ni]; message <- mode;
            next;
        } else {
            nena <- form3names(1,gn2item(gd));
            gd <- and4gn(gd,nena);
            gd@pos@posi[nbnv(gd,gd@item),1:2] <- ou;
            mode <- "AN"; message <- mode; next;
        }
    }
    # removing a node
    if (mode=="RN") {
        mode <- "RN"; message <- mode; 
        uuu <-  dessinne();
        xre <- uuu$xre; yre <- uuu$yre; posbut <- uuu$posbut;
        # we must get the node to remove
        ou <- unlist(locator(1));
        ni <- quequoi(ou);
        if (ni < 0) {
            if (-ni == nbut) { break;}
            mode <- conbut[-ni]; message <- mode;
            next;
        } else {
            gd <- rmnd4gn(gd,ni);
            mode <- "RN"; message <- mode; next;
        }
    }
    # zooming more
    if (mode=="+") {
        mode <- "+"; message <- mode; 
        uuu <-  dessinne();
        xre <- uuu$xre; yre <- uuu$yre; posbut <- uuu$posbut;
        # we must get the center point for applying the zoom
        ou <- unlist(locator(1));
        ni <- quequoi(ou);
        if (ni < 0) {
            if (-ni == nbut) { break;}
            mode <- conbut[-ni]; message <- mode;
            next;
        } else {
            ou[1] <- -1 + 2*(ou[1]-min(gd@pos@posi[,1]))/
            (max(gd@pos@posi[,1])-min(gd@pos@posi[,1]));
            ou[2] <- -1 + 2*(ou[2]-min(gd@pos@posi[,2]))/
            (max(gd@pos@posi[,2])-min(gd@pos@posi[,2]));
            gd@pos@zoom <- c(ou,gd@pos@zoom[3],gd@pos@zoom[4]*gd@pgr@kzoom);
            mode <- "+"; message <- mode; next;
        }
    }
    # zooming less
    if (mode=="-") {
        mode <- "-"; message <- mode; 
        uuu <-  dessinne();
        xre <- uuu$xre; yre <- uuu$yre; posbut <- uuu$posbut;
        # we must get the center point for applying the zoom
        ou <- unlist(locator(1));
        ni <- quequoi(ou);
        if (ni < 0) {
            if (-ni == nbut) { break;}
            mode <- conbut[-ni]; message <- mode; 
            next;
        } else {
            ou[1] <- -1 + 2*(ou[1]-min(gd@pos@posi[,1]))/
            (max(gd@pos@posi[,1])-min(gd@pos@posi[,1]));
            ou[2] <- -1 + 2*(ou[2]-min(gd@pos@posi[,2]))/
            (max(gd@pos@posi[,2])-min(gd@pos@posi[,2]));
            gd@pos@zoom <- c(ou,gd@pos@zoom[3],gd@pos@zoom[4]/gd@pgr@kzoom);
            mode <- "-"; message <- mode; next;
        }
    }
    # rotating
    if (mode=="Rot") {
        mode <- "Rot"; message <- mode; 
        uuu <-  dessinne ();
        xre <- uuu$xre; yre <- uuu$yre; posbut <- uuu$posbut;
        # indicating the center (start for rotation)
        # center of the plot and radius
        centx <- mean(xre); centy <- mean(yre);
        rayon <- sqrt(diff(xre)^2+diff(yre)^2);
        for (jd in 1:3) { points(centx,centy,cex=jd);}
        # putting calibration rotation of 5 deg. and 10 deg.
        symbols(rep(centx,2),rep(centy,2),
                circles=0.5*rayon*(diff(xre)/anglemax)*pi/180*c(5,10),
                add=TRUE,inches=FALSE);
        # we must get Theta and Phi angles
        ou <- unlist(locator(1));
        ni <- quequoi(ou);
        if (ni < 0) {
            if (-ni == nbut) { break;}
            mode <- conbut[-ni];
            next;
        } else {
            theta <- ou[2] / diff(xre) * anglemax;
            phi   <- ou[1] / diff(xre) * anglemax;
            gd@pos@view <- gd@pos@view + c(theta,phi);
            gd@pos <- pos2pos(gd@pos);
            mode <- "Rot"; next;
        }
    }
} ### ENDING THE CLICKING GAME
dev.off();
gd;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
read8gn <- function(fi)
#TITLE produced a /gn/ from a text file
#DESCRIPTION
# The text file must follow the structure compatible
# with \code{file2list}. The first component of the file
# must be the description of the /gn/; the remaining 
# components are supposed to be the nodes.
#DETAILS
# See \code{rebastaba.etg?.txt} files to get 
# straightforward examples.
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn file
#INPUTS
#{fi} <<The name of the file to be considered.>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# The generated /gn/ object
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING  {file2list} {list2gn}
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 09_04_06
#REVISED 10_06_16
#--------------------------------------------
{
# reading the list
li <- file2list(fi,path="",
                tags=rbsb.tag2,
                sep=rbsb.sep2
               );
## interpreting the list
# exploring it
ee <- explore8list(li);
# looking for all the components
ve <- bc(nrow(ee));
for (ii in bc(nrow(ee))) {
    # eliminating the list ones
    ve[ee[,"classes"] == "list"] <- 0;
    nam <- ee[ii,"name"];
    # eliminating the list ones
    if (nam == "list") {ve[ii] <- 0;
    # if not getting the components
    } else { vava <- get8listcomp(li,ee[ii,])[[1]];}
    #
    # dealing with compulsory character of the description
    if (expr3present(nam,c("name","orig","time","defi","role"),exact=TRUE)) {
        if (length(vava) > 1) {
            li <- set8listcomp(paste(vava,collapse=" "),li,ee[ii,]);
        }
        ve[ii] <- 0;
    }
    #
    # dealing with the item
    if (expr3present(nam,c("item"),exact=TRUE)) {
        li$item <- form3norma(li$item);
        ve[ii] <- 0;
    }
    # dealing with the link
    if (expr3present(nam,c("link"),exact=TRUE)) {
        if (length(vava) > 1) {
            vava <- form3norma(vava," ",">",">");
            vava <- form3decadre(vava);
            li <- set8listcomp(vava,li,ee[ii,]);
        }
        ve[ii] <- 0;
    }
}
#
if (any(ve>0)) {
    nochecked <- ee[ve>0,,drop=FALSE];
    # form3affiche(nochecked);
}
#
# getting the gn
gn <- list2gn(li);
# precautionary checking
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
# returning
gn;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
minbar8gn <- function(gn)
#TITLE finds the minimum number of arcs between nodes of a gn object
#DESCRIPTION
# Finds the minimum number of arcs between nodes of a gn object.
# To do so, the parentship is explored and a matrix is returned.
# This matrix is similar to the pam matrix but is richer. Its
# rows and columns are associated to each node. [i,j] is the minimum
# number of arcs to follow to go from node i to node j. When this
# is not possible, a value of -1 is introduced.
#DETAILS
# Own nodes are considered as zero distance children (in
# other words the diagonal of the resulting matrix is not
# -1 but 0).
#KEYWORDS utilities
#PKEYWORDS gn genealogy
#INPUTS
#{gn} <<The gn object to be investigated>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# a matrix (see DESCRIPTION field)
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# minbar8gn(g4n.gn7);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
# The transposed matrix has a similar interpretation
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_09_07
#REVISED 09_06_09
#--------------------------------------------
{
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
nbno <- nbnv(gn,gn@item); 
noms <- gn2item(gn);
# particular cases
if (nbno < 2) {
    return(matrix(0,nbno,nbno,dimnames=list(noms,noms)));
}
# initialization
res <- matrix(-1,nbno,nbno);
res <- res + diag(nbno);
dimnames(res) <- list(noms,noms);
# doing it
nbf <- 0; # nbr of arcs to obtain the child
nba <- 1; # nbr of added children during the loop
while (nba > 0) {
    nbf <- nbf + 1; nba <- 0;
    for (jbd in 1:nbno) {
        enf <- which(res[jbd,] != -1); # children for nodes jbd
        pos <- which(apply(outer(gn@arc@fle[,1],enf,"=="),1,sum)==1); # starting arcs
        nenf <- gn@arc@fle[pos,2]; # possible new children
        nenf <- setdiff(nenf,enf);# actual new children
        if (length(nenf) > 0) {
            nba <- nba + length(nenf);
            res[jbd,nenf] <- nbf;
        }
    }
}
# returning
res;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
and4gn <- function(gn,names=1,pos=NULL)
#TITLE adds a series of nodes to a gn object
#DESCRIPTION
# This function adds a series of nodes to a /gn/
# without any links giving them the names into
# argument 'names'. They are unidimensional with
# empty variable names.
#DETAILS
# With respect to the internal order, the new nodes
# are introduced at the end.
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS gn nd
#INPUTS
#{gn}<<The object gn to be completed>>
#[INPUTS]
#{names} <<(=1) when numeric of length 1, it
#               indicates the number of nodes to add
#               (and the name will be automatically
#               determined by form3names function.
#               When character it is the vector
#               of the new names and its length gives
#               the number of node to add.>>
#{pos} <<(=NULL) gives the positions to add.
#        When null, they will be automatically provided.
#        When a matrix, it must comprise as many rows as
#        new nodes and 2 (x,y) or 3 (x,y,z) columns.>>
#VALUE
# The completed object gn
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# and4gn(g4n.gn7,c("U","V","W"));  
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_11_12
#REVISED 09_05_06
#--------------------------------------------
{
# checking and preparing
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
if (gn@item!="n") {
    erreur(gn,"For the moment, adn4gn does not work when the slot item is not 'n'");
}
# about the new names
items <- gn2item(gn);
if (is.numeric(names)) {
    check4tyle(names,"any",1,message="When numeric, names must be a single integer.");
    names <- form3names(names,items);
}
if (!all(outer(items,names,"!="))) {
    erreur(list(gn@nom,names),"Some names for new nodes already exists!");
}
nbnn <- length(names);
# about the new positions to give
if (!isvide(pos)) {
    if (!is.matrix(pos)) {
        erreur(pos,"When non null, 'pos' must be a matrix!");
    }
    if((nrow(pos) != nbnn) | !(ncol(pos) %in% c(2,3))) {
        erreur(dim(pos),"When a matrix, pos must have 2 or 3 columns",
               "and a number of rows identical to the number",
               "of nodes to add");
    }
}
###
### adapting the /gn/
#
# completing the nodes
for (nn in names) { gn@nom@x[[nn]] <- ""; }
#
# completing the arcs
gn@arc@nbn <- length(gn2item(gn,check=FALSE));
#
# completing the positions
if (is.null(pos)) {
    angles <- (1:nbnn)*2*pi/nbnn;
    xr <- range(gn@pos@posi[,1]);
    yr <- range(gn@pos@posi[,2]);
    cen <- c(mean(xr),mean(yr));
    rad <- c(diff(xr),diff(yr))/2;
    pos <- cbind(rad[1]*cos(angles),rad[2]*sin(angles)) + 
           outer(rep(1,nbnn),cen,"*");
}
if (ncol(pos == 2)) { pos <- cbind(pos,rep(0,nbnn),rep(0,nbnn));
} else { pos <- cbind(pos,rep(0,nbnn));}
gn@pos@posi <- rbind(gn@pos@posi,pos);
# returning
gn;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
ends8gn <- function(gn)
#TITLE returns the root and leaf nodes/variables of a gn
#DESCRIPTION
# From a /gn/ object, the set of nodes/variables
# is partitioned in four classes:\cr
# (i) the root and leaf nodes/variables,\cr
# (ii) the root but not leaf nodes/variables,\cr
# (iii) the leaf but not root nodes/variables,\cr
# (iv) the remaining nodes/variables.\cr
# Of course, some of the classes can be empty.
#DETAILS No check about \code{gn}
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS bn gn
#INPUTS
#{gn}<<The gn.>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# a list of four named numeric vectors with the iin
# of the corresponding nodes/variables and the names as names.
# The four items are $RaL (root and leaf), $RwL (root
# but not leaf), $LwR (leaf but not root) and $rema (the
# remaining nodes/variables).
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# ends8gn(g4n.gn7);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO 
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_10_01
#REVISED 09_10_16
#--------------------------------------------
{
# determining the number of nodes/variables
nbn <- nbnv(gn,gn@item);
# preparing the resulting list
res <- vector("list",4);
names(res) <- c("RaL","RwL","LwR","rema");
for (i in 1:4) { res[[i]] <- numeric(0);}
# getting the parentship
pare <- neighbours8gn(gn,"parents");
chil <- neighbours8gn(gn,"children");
# filling the list
par <- chi <- numeric(nbn);
for (nn in bc(nbn)) {
    par <- length(pare[[nn]]);
    chi <- length(chil[[nn]]);
    if (par == 0) {
        if (chi == 0) {
            res$RaL <- c(res$RaL,nn);
        } else {
            res$RwL <- c(res$RwL,nn);
        }
    } else {
        if (chi == 0) {
            res$LwR <- c(res$LwR,nn);
        } else {
            res$rema <- c(res$rema,nn);
        }
    }
}
# adding the names
nana <- gn2item(gn);
for (i in 1:4) { names(res[[i]]) <- nana[res[[i]]];}
# returning
res;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
neighbours8gn <- function(gn,what="parents")
#TITLE returns the direct parents (or children) of a gn nodes
#DESCRIPTION
# Returns the parents/children of all nodes (or all variables
# according to \code{[email protected]}) of 'gn'.
#DETAILS
# Parents means direct parents; children means direct children
#KEYWORDS
#PKEYWORDS genealogy
#INPUTS
#{gn}<<the gn object.>>
#[INPUTS]
#{what} << either \code{parents} or \code{children} accordingly.>>
#VALUE
# A list of character vectors containing the names of the parents,
# each component of the list is associate to an item (node or
# variable). When there is no parent, character(0) is returned.
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# neighbours8gn(g4n.gn7,"parents");
# neighbours8gn(g4n.gn7,"children");
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 09_10_16
#REVISED 09_10_16
#--------------------------------------------
{
# checking
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8gn(gn));}
if (!expr3present(what,c("parents","children"))) {
    erreur(what,"'what' must be 'parents' or 'children'");
}
# getting the parents or children
nbn <- gn@arc@nbn;
if (nbn==0) { return(rbsb.lis0); }
res <- vector("list",nbn);
nnom <- gn2item(gn);
for (ii in bc(nbn)) { res[[ii]] <- character(0);}
for (ii in bc(nrow(gn@arc@fle))) {
    chi <- gn@arc@fle[ii,2];
    chn <- nnom[chi];
    pai <- gn@arc@fle[ii,1];
    pan <- nnom[pai];
    #
    if (expr3present(what,"parents")) {
        res[[chi]] <- c(res[[chi]],pan);
    } else {
        res[[pai]] <- c(res[[pai]],chn);
    }
}
# naming the result
names(res) <- nnom;
# returning
res;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

###########################################
###########################################
########
#((((((( NEW S4 CLASS ion
########
###########################################
###########################################


#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
cycle8pam <- function(pam)
#TITLE  detects if a cycle exists from a pam matrix
#DESCRIPTION (ba)
# This function returns TRUE or FALSE if at least one cycle
# is detected within the graph defined by the pam matrix.
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS utilities
#PKEYWORDS pam cycle
#INPUTS
#{pam} <<The pam matrix>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# logical variable (TRUE: at least a cycle, FALSE : no cycle).
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# papa <- new("pam",rlt=matrix(c(0,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,0),3));
# cycle8pam(papa);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_10_10
#REVISED 07_10_19
#--------------------------------------------
{
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8pam(pam));}
# initialization
nbn <- nrow(pam@rlt);
res <- numeric(0);
nbfait <- -1; 
# starting the stupid loop
while (nbfait < length(res)) {
    nbfait <- length(res);
    for (jbd in bc(nbn)) { 
        papa <- which(pam@rlt[,jbd]==1);
        if (length(unique(c(jbd,papa,res))) == (1+length(res))) {
            res <- c(res,jbd);
        }
    }
}
if ((length(res)) != nbn) { res <- TRUE;
} else { res <- FALSE;}
# returning
res;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
explore8pam <- function(pam,iir=bc(nrow(pam@rlt)),jjc=iir)
#TITLE  finds different characteristics of relations
#           between nodes
#DESCRIPTION (ba)
# exploring the parentship matrix 'pam', returns a list
# of different nodesxnodes matrices giving standard
# characteristics of the relationship between them.\cr
# The calculation is done with iin order
# and the result is proposed in iin order.
# The relation are:
#  (i) the indication of the relation (-1=row is descendant,
#      0= none, 1= row is ascendant),
#  (ii) the minimum number of arcs to join row and column
#      (0 means no)
#  (iii) the maximum number of arcs to join row and column
#      (0 means no)
#  (iv) the number of different paths joining row and column
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS utilities
#PKEYWORDS bn gn
#INPUTS
#{pam} <<The pam object>>
#[INPUTS]
#{iir} << the subset of nodes to be considered
#        as starting nodes. They will be en rows of the
#        resulting matrices.>>
#{jjc} << the subset of nodes to be considered as ending
#        nodes. They will be in columns of the resulting matrices.>>
#VALUE
# a list gathering two lists
#  $des: a list of descriptions explaining what is
#        computed in the differents matrices
#  $rel: the list of the computed matrices
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# explore8pam(g4n.pam1);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
# a former version of this function was called 'genea'
#FUTURE
# It could be more logical (and efficient when the number
# of nodes is important) that the matrices be replaced 
# with couples of nodes...
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_06_17
#REVISED 09_05_10
#--------------------------------------------
{
# checking
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8pam(pam));}
pama <- pam@rlt; nbn <- nrow(pama);
if (!all(iir %in% 1:nbn)) {
    erreur(iir,"is not acceptable for dim(pama) =",dim(pama));
}
if (!all(jjc %in% 1:nbn)) {
    erreur(jjc,"is not acceptable for dim(pama) =",dim(pama));
}
if (length(unique(iir)) < length(iir)) {
    erreur(iir,"repetitions are not accepted!");
}
if (length(unique(jjc)) < length(iir)) {
    erreur(jjc,"repetitions are not accepted!");
}
# defining the objects
d1 <- new("des",orig="",time="",role="",
      name="relation",
      defi=paste("0 when no relation,",
                 "1 when the row is an ascendant of the column,",
                 "-1 when the row is a descendant of the column."));
d2 <- new("des",orig="",time="",role="",
      name="minimum",
      defi=paste("0 when no relation,",
                 "otherwise the minimum number of arcs between",
                 "the two nodes."));
d3 <- new("des",orig="",time="",role="",
      name="maximum",
      defi=paste("0 when no relation,",
                 "otherwise the maximum number of arcs between",
                 "the two nodes."));
d4 <- new("des",orig="",time="",role="",
      name="number",
      defi=paste("0 when no relation,",
                 "otherwise the number of different paths",
                 "following the arcs to go from one node",
                 "to the other."));
# finding the relationship matrices
pama <- pam@rlt;
pamb <- t(pama);
m1 <- pama - pamb;
m2 <- m3 <- m4 <- pama + pamb;
ka <- pama; kb <- pamb;
for (ii in (1+bc(nbn-2))) {
    ka <- ka %*% pama; kb <- kb %*% pamb;
    m1 <- m1 + ka - kb;
    m2[(m2==0)&((ka>0)|(kb>0))] <- ii;
    m3[        ((ka>0)|(kb>0))] <- ii;
    m4 <- m4 + ka + kb;
}
nana <- list(iir,jjc);
m1 <- m1[iir,jjc,drop=FALSE]; dimnames(m1) <- nana;
m2 <- m2[iir,jjc,drop=FALSE]; dimnames(m2) <- nana;
m3 <- m3[iir,jjc,drop=FALSE]; dimnames(m3) <- nana;
m4 <- m4[iir,jjc,drop=FALSE]; dimnames(m4) <- nana;

list(des=list(d1,d2,d3,d4),
     rel=list(m1,m2,m3,m4));
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
mindis8pam <- function(pam)
#TITLE  finds the minimum distance between every pair of nodes
#DESCRIPTION (ba)
# From the parentship matrix, the minimum distance matrix between
# every pairs of nodes is computed. [i,j] means from node ith to node
# jth. In most cases (especially for non empty dags) the matrix is
# not symmetric.\cr
# The distance (not a mathematical distance) is the minimal number of 
# arcs to follow before reaching the node j starting from the node i.
#DETAILS
# -1 are introduced on the diagonal.
#KEYWORDS utilities
#PKEYWORDS pam 
#INPUTS
#{pam} <<The pam matrix to be investigated>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# The matrix containing the distances
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# mindis8pam(g4n.pam1);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
# The transposed matrix is also of value
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_09_24
#REVISED 07_11_07
#--------------------------------------------
{
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8pam(pam));}
nbno <- nrow(pam@rlt); 
mm <- res <- pam@rlt; 
# going on
if (nbno > 2) { for (jbd in 2:(nbno-1)) {
    mm <- mm %*% pam@rlt;
    res[(res==0)&(mm>0)] <- jbd;
}}
# returning
res;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
pos2pos <- function(pos)
#TITLE  returns the equivalent pos object with standard view
#DESCRIPTION (ba)
# This function returns the equivalent pos object with standard view
# (i.e. view=c(0,0)). The central point of zoom is modified
# accordingly.
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS utilities
#PKEYWORDS plot pos
#INPUTS
#{pos} <<the pos object to be modified>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# The transformed pos object
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# print(pos2pos(g4n.pos0));
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
# At the beginning, pos2pos was called projection since it is
# the way to obtain the coordinates (in new (x,y)) for the
# representation.
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_10_25
#REVISED 07_11_12
#--------------------------------------------
{
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8pos(pos));}
xyz <- rbind(pos@posi[,1:3],pos@zoom[1:3]);
for (jbd in bc(nrow(xyz))) {
    uu <- xyz[jbd,];
    vv <- geom3xyz2pol(uu);
    vv[2:3] <- vv[2:3] + pos@view;
    xyz[jbd,] <- geom3pol2xyz(vv);
}
if (nrow(xyz) > 1) { pos@posi[,1:3] <- xyz[-nrow(xyz),];}
pos@zoom[1:3] <- xyz[nrow(xyz),];
# returning
pos;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
pam2path <- function(pam,d,a)
#TITLE  returns all paths between two nodes
#DESCRIPTION (ba)
# From the parentship matrix computes recursively
# all paths between two nodes.
#DETAILS
# The basic idea is quite simple. All paths 
# between d (departure) and a (arrival) are the 
# paths between every children of d and a, so
# a recursive procedure can be used.
#KEYWORDS utilities
#PKEYWORDS genealogy 
#INPUTS
#{pam} <<pam object>>
#{d} <<departure node (internal number)>>
#{a} <<arrival node (internal number)>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# a list of vectors describing all possible paths
# going from d to a. The list is sorted according to
# the length of the path.
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# pam2path(g4n.pam1,1,5);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_09_12
#REVISED 07_10_19
#--------------------------------------------
{
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8pam(pam));}
# is the final node reached?
if (d == a) {
   res <- list(d);
}
else {
    # initialization
    res <- vector("list",0);
    # looking for the d children
    ee <- which(1==pam@rlt[d,]);
    # is there no child?
    if (length(ee) == 0) {
        res <- -1;
    }
    else {
        # loop over all children from node d
        for (jbd in ee) {
            # computing the paths from this children
            ff <- Recall(pam,jbd,a);
            # is there a valid path?
            if (is.list(ff)) {
                # preparing a list with the right dimension
                nres <- vector("list",length(res)+length(ff));
                # copying the previous components
                if (length(res)>0) { for (jd in 1:length(res)) {
                    nres[[jd]] <- res[[jd]];
                }}
                # adding the component with this child
                if (length(ff)>0) { for (jd in 1:length(ff)) {
                    nres[[jd+length(res)]] <- c(d,ff[[jd]]);
                }}

                # storing to continue the loop
                res <- nres;
            }
            else {
                res <- -1;
            }
        }
    }
}
# removing component -1 (means no path)
if (length(res) > 0) {
    ko <- 0;
    for (i in length(res)) { 
        if (identical(res[[i]],-1)) { ko <- 1+ko;}
    }
    if (ko > 0) {
        uu <- vector("list",length(res)-ko);
        ik <- 0;
        for (i in length(res)) { 
            if (!identical(res[[i]],-1)) {
                ik <- 1+ik;
                uu[[ik]] <- res[[i]];
            }
        }
    res <- uu;
    }
}
# sorting the list
if (length(res) > 1) {
    long <- rep(NA,length(res));
    for (yd in 1:length(res)) { long[yd] <- length(res[[yd]]);}
    res <- res[order(long)];
}
# returning
res;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
arc2pam <- function(arc)
#TITLE  constructs the object pam from the object arc
#DESCRIPTION (ba)
# exploring the matrix [email protected], returns a binary matrix with
# rows associated to each node giving their children.
# 0 means that this column is not a children as a pam object.
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS utilities
#PKEYWORDS genealogy arc pam
#INPUTS
#{arc} <<The arc object>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# the pam object
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# print(g4n.arc0);
# print(arc2pam(g4n.arc0));
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_10_10
#REVISED 07_10_18
#--------------------------------------------
{
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8arc(arc));}
nbno <- arc@nbn;
res <- new("pam",rlt=matrix(0,nbno,nbno));
# doing it
for (jbd in bc(nrow(arc@fle))) {
    res@rlt[arc@fle[jbd,1],arc@fle[jbd,2]] <- 1;
}
# returning
res;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
pam2arc <- function(pam)
#TITLE  from the parentship object pam returns the arcs object
#DESCRIPTION (ba)
#   from the parentship object pam returns the arcs object
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS utilities
#PKEYWORDS genealogy arc pam
#INPUTS
#{pam} <<The object pam.>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# the arc object.
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# print(pam2arc(g4n.pam0));
# print(pam2arc(g4n.pam1));
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_10_18
#REVISED 09_10_20
#--------------------------------------------
{
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8pam(pam));}
nbno <- nrow(pam@rlt);
res <- new("arc",nbn=nbno,fle=matrix(0,0,3));
# doing it
for (jbd in bc(nbno)) { for (jd in bc(nbno)) {
    if (pam@rlt[jbd,jd] == 1) {
        res@fle <- rbind(res@fle,c(jbd,jd,211));
    }
}}
# returning
res;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
geneal4pam <- function(pam,i,asc=TRUE)
#TITLE  constructs the genealoty of a given node
#DESCRIPTION (ba)
#   This function constructs the genealoty of a given node,
# that is returns the graph of all ascendants (descendants)
# starting from this node.
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS utilities
#PKEYWORDS genealogy
#INPUTS
#{pam} <<The pam matrix describing the parentship.>>
#{i} <<The considered node.>>
#[INPUTS]
#{asc} << must ascendants be looked for, if not
#        the descendants.>>
#VALUE
# an arc object describing the obtained tree
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# geneal4pam(g4n.pam1,2);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_11_07
#REVISED 09_10_13
#--------------------------------------------
{
# starting
if (g4n.mck) {
    check4valid(valid8pam(pam));
    check4tyle(i,"numeric",1,message="Only one node at once");
}
nbn <- nrow(pam@rlt);
if ((i<1) | (i>nbn)) { erreur(NULL,"the node",i,"does not fit with the pam provided.");}
if (asc) { pam@rlt <- t(pam@rlt);}
res <- new("arc",nbn=nbn,fle=matrix(0,0,3));
# the included nodes
nin <- i;
# finding all involved nodes
ajout <- 1;
while (ajout > 0) {
    ajout <- 0;
    #cat("----------",ajout,"\n");
    for (noe in nin) {
        #cat("(((",nin,")))",noe,"\n");
        pot <- which(pam@rlt[noe,] == 1);
        #cat("|||",pot,"|||\n");
        for (po in bf(pot)) {
            p <- pot[po];
            if (!(p %in% nin)) {
                #cat("uuu\n");
                nin <- c(nin,p);
                ajout <- ajout+1;
            }
        }
    }
}
# deducing the restricted graph
for (i in bf(nin)) { 
    ii <- nin[i];
    for (j in bf(nin)) {
        jj <- nin[j];
        if (pam@rlt[ii,jj] == 1) {
           res@fle <- rbind(res@fle,c(ii,jj,211));
        }
    }
}

if (asc) { res@fle[,1:2] <- res@fle[,c(2,1)];}
if (g4n.mck) {check4valid(valid8arc(res));}
# returning
res;
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
range8pos <- function(pos,padding=g4n.pgr0@padding)
#TITLE  returns the ranges (x,y) for a pos
#DESCRIPTION (ba)
#   This function returns the ranges (x,y) for a pos
# taking into account the zoom specification of the pos
# and the extreme values of its positions.
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS utilities
#PKEYWORDS geometry
#INPUTS
#{pos} <<The pos object.>>
#[INPUTS]
#{padding} <<The padding coefficient to apply.>>
#VALUE
# a list with two components \$x and \$y giving
# the ranges (min,max) of the two first positions
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # needed only for R checking, to be forgotten
# uu <- new("pos",posi=matrix(round(10*cos(1:20)),5));
# range8pos(uu);
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 07_11_07
#REVISED 07_11_07
#--------------------------------------------
{
xra <- diff(range(pos@posi[,1]))/2;
yra <- diff(range(pos@posi[,2]))/2;
# computing the middle point of the nodes
xmi <- mean(range(pos@posi[,1]));
ymi <- mean(range(pos@posi[,2]));
# computing the range of the representation
xm <- xmi + xra*pos@zoom[1];
ym <- ymi + yra*pos@zoom[2];
xr <- xm + padding*c(-1,1)*xra/pos@zoom[4];
yr <- ym + padding*c(-1,1)*yra/pos@zoom[4];
list(x=xr,y=yr);
}
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

#<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
new8arc <- function(nbno,nbar)
#TITLE  creates an /arc/ with a specified number of nodes and arcs
#DESCRIPTION (ba)
# After checking that it is possible, returns an /arc/ object
# with the specified number of nodes (\code{nbno}) and arcs (\code{nbar}).
#DETAILS
#KEYWORDS misc
#PKEYWORDS arc
#INPUTS
#{nbno}<<Number of desired nodes.>>
#{nbar}<<Number of desired arcs.>>
#[INPUTS]
#VALUE
# A valid \code{arc} object. If not possible,
# a fatal error is issued  
#EXAMPLE
# g4n3k("RESET"); # For R checking to be forgetten
# new8arc(10,5);
# \dontrun{new8arc(3,4);}
#REFERENCE
#SEE ALSO
#CALLING
#COMMENT
#FUTURE
#AUTHOR J.-B. Denis
#CREATED 09_10_20
#REVISED 09_10_20
#--------------------------------------------
{
# checking
if (g4n.mck) {
    check4tyle(nbno,"integer",1,message="nbno is the number of nodes");
    check4tyle(nbar,"integer",1,message="nbar is the number of arcs");
    if (nbno < 0) { erreur(nbno,"nbno is the number of nodes");}
    if (nbar < 0) { erreur(nbar,"nbar is the number of arcs");}
    if (nbar > nbno*(nbno-1)/2) {
        erreur(list(nbno,nbar),"Too much arcs for the number of nodes");
    }
}
#
# filling the @fle matrix
fle <- matrix(211,nbar,3);
nba <- 0;
for (dep in bc(nbno)) { for (arr in bc(nbno)) {
if (dep<arr) { if (nba < nbar) {
    nba <- nba + 1;
    fle[nba,1:2] <- c(dep,arr);
}}}}
# returning
new("arc",nbn=nbno,fle=fle);
              }
#>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

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g4n documentation built on May 2, 2019, 5:47 p.m.