DAISIE_ML: Maximization of the loglikelihood under the DAISIE model with...

Description Usage Arguments Value Author(s) References See Also Examples

View source: R/DAISIE_ML_CS.R

Description

This function computes the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters of the DAISIE model with clade-specific diversity-dependence for data from lineages colonizing an island. It also outputs the corresponding loglikelihood that can be used in model comparisons. The result of sort(c(idparsopt, idparsfix, idparsnoshift)) should be identical to c(1:10). If not, an error is reported that the input is incoherent. The same happens when the length of initparsopt is different from the length of idparsopt, and the length of parsfix is different from the length of idparsfix.
Including the 11th parameter (p_f) in either idparsopt or idparsfix (and therefore initparsopt or parsfix) is optional. If this parameter is not specified, then the information in the data is used, otherwise the information in the data is overruled.

Usage

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DAISIE_ML_CS(
  datalist,
  datatype = "single",
  initparsopt,
  idparsopt,
  parsfix,
  idparsfix,
  idparsnoshift = 6:10,
  idparsmat = NULL,
  res = 100,
  ddmodel = 0,
  cond = 0,
  island_ontogeny = NA,
  eqmodel = 0,
  x_E = 0.95,
  x_I = 0.98,
  tol = c(1e-04, 1e-05, 1e-07),
  maxiter = 1000 * round((1.25)^length(idparsopt)),
  methode = "lsodes",
  optimmethod = "subplex",
  CS_version = 1,
  verbose = 0,
  tolint = c(1e-16, 1e-10),
  jitter = 0
)

Arguments

datalist

Data object containing information on colonisation and branching times. This object can be generated using the DAISIE_dataprep function, which converts a user-specified data table into a data object, but the object can of course also be entered directly. It is an R list object with the following elements.
The first element of the list has two or three components:

$island_age - the island age
Then, depending on whether a distinction between types is made, we have:
$not_present - the number of mainland lineages that are not present on the island
or:
$not_present_type1 - the number of mainland lineages of type 1 that are not present on the island
$not_present_type2 - the number of mainland lineages of type 2 that are not present on the island

The remaining elements of the list each contains information on a single colonist lineage on the island and has 5 components:

$colonist_name - the name of the species or clade that colonized the island
$branching_times - island age followed by stem age of the population/species in the case of Non-endemic, Non-endemic_MaxAge species and Endemic species with no close relatives on the island. For endemic clades with more than one species on the island (cladogenetic clades/ radiations) these should be island age followed by the branching times of the island clade including the stem age of the clade
$stac - the status of the colonist

* Non_endemic_MaxAge: 1
* Endemic: 2
* Endemic&Non_Endemic: 3
* Non_Endemic: 4
* Endemic_Singleton_MaxAge: 5
* Endemic_Clade_MaxAge: 6
* Endemic&Non_Endemic_Clade_MaxAge: 7

$missing_species - number of island species that were not sampled for particular clade (only applicable for endemic clades)
$type1or2 - whether the colonist belongs to type 1 or type 2

datatype

Sets the type of data: 'single' for a single island or archipelago treated as one, and 'multiple' for multiple archipelagoes potentially sharing the same parameters.

initparsopt

The initial values of the parameters that must be optimized, they are all positive.

idparsopt

The ids of the parameters that must be optimized. The ids are defined as follows:

id = 1 corresponds to lambda^c (cladogenesis rate)
id = 2 corresponds to mu (extinction rate)
id = 3 corresponds to K (clade-level carrying capacity)
id = 4 corresponds to gamma (immigration rate)
id = 5 corresponds to lambda^a (anagenesis rate)
id = 6 corresponds to lambda^c (cladogenesis rate) for an optional subset of the species
id = 7 corresponds to mu (extinction rate) for an optional subset of the species
id = 8 corresponds to K (clade-level carrying capacity) for an optional subset of the species
id = 9 corresponds to gamma (immigration rate) for an optional subset of the species
id = 10 corresponds to lambda^a (anagenesis rate) for an optional subset of the species
id = 11 corresponds to p_f (fraction of mainland species that belongs to the second subset of species.

parsfix

The values of the parameters that should not be optimized.

idparsfix

The ids of the parameters that should not be optimized, e.g. c(1,3) if lambda^c and K should not be optimized.

idparsnoshift

For datatype = 'single' only: The ids of the parameters that should not be different between two groups of species; This can only apply to ids 6:10, e.g. idparsnoshift = c(6,7) means that lambda^c and mu have the same values for both groups.

idparsmat

For datatype = 'multiple' only: Matrix containing the ids of the parameters, linking them to initparsopt and parsfix. Per island system we use the following order:

* lac = (initial) cladogenesis rate
* mu = extinction rate
* K = maximum number of species possible in the clade
* gam = (initial) immigration rate
* laa = (initial) anagenesis rate
Example: idparsmat = rbind(c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5), c(1, 2, 3, 6, 7)) has different rates of immigration and anagenesis for the two islands.

res

Sets the maximum number of species for which a probability must be computed, must be larger than the size of the largest clade.

ddmodel

Sets the model of diversity-dependence:

ddmodel = 0 : no diversity dependence
ddmodel = 1 : linear dependence in speciation rate
ddmodel = 11: linear dependence in speciation rate and in immigration rate
ddmodel = 2 : exponential dependence in speciation rate
ddmodel = 21: exponential dependence in speciation rate and in immigration rate

cond

cond = 0 : conditioning on island age
cond = 1 : conditioning on island age and non-extinction of the island biota
.

island_ontogeny

In DAISIE_sim_time_dependent(), DAISIE_ML_CS and plotting a string describing the type of island ontogeny. Can be "const", "beta" for a beta function describing area through time. String checked by is_island_ontogeny_input().
In all other functions a numeric describing the type of island ontogeny. Can be 0 for constant, 1 for a beta function describing area through time. In ML functions island_ontogeny = NA assumes constant ontogeny.

eqmodel

Sets the equilibrium constraint that can be used during the likelihood optimization. Only available for datatype = 'single'.

eqmodel = 0 : no equilibrium is assumed
eqmodel = 13 : near-equilibrium is assumed on endemics using deterministic equation for endemics and immigrants. Endemics must be within x_E of the equilibrium value
eqmodel = 15 : near-equilibrium is assumed on endemics and immigrants using deterministic equation for endemics and immigrants. Endemics must be within x_E of the equilibrium value, while non-endemics must be within x_I of the equilibrium value.

x_E

Sets the fraction of the equlibrium endemic diversity above which the endemics are assumed to be in equilibrium; only active for eqmodel = 13 or 15.

x_I

Sets the fraction of the equlibrium non-endemic diversity above which the system is assumed to be in equilibrium; only active for eqmodel = 15.

tol

Sets the tolerances in the optimization. Consists of:
reltolx = relative tolerance of parameter values in optimization
reltolf = relative tolerance of function value in optimization
abstolx = absolute tolerance of parameter values in optimization.

maxiter

Sets the maximum number of iterations in the optimization.

methode

Method of the ODE-solver. See package deSolve for details. Default is "lsodes".

optimmethod

Method used in likelihood optimization. Default is "subplex" (see subplex package). Alternative is 'simplex' which was the method in previous versions.

CS_version

a numeric or list. Default is 1 for the standard DAISIE model, for a relaxed-rate model a list with the following elements:

  • model: the CS model to run, options are 1 for single rate DAISIE model, 2 for multi-rate DAISIE, or 0 for IW test model

  • relaxed_par: the parameter to relax (integrate over). Options are "cladogenesis", "extinction", "carrying_capacity", "immigration", or "anagenesis"

verbose

In simulation and dataprep functions a logical, Default = TRUE gives intermediate output should be printed. For ML functions a numeric determining if intermediate output should be printed, Default = 0 does not print, verbose = 1 prints intermediate output of the parameters and loglikelihood, verbose = 2 means also intermediate progress during loglikelihood computation is shown.

tolint

Vector of two elements containing the absolute and relative tolerance of the integration.

jitter

Numeric for optimizer(). Jitters the parameters being optimized by the specified amount which should be very small, e.g. 1e-5. Jitter when link[subplex]{subplex}() produces incorrect output due to parameter transformation.

Value

The output is a dataframe containing estimated parameters and maximum loglikelihood.

lambda_c

gives the maximum likelihood estimate of lambda^c, the rate of cladogenesis

mu

gives the maximum likelihood estimate of mu, the extinction rate

K

gives the maximum likelihood estimate of K, the carrying-capacity

gamma

gives the maximum likelihood estimate of gamma, the immigration rate

lambda_a

gives the maximum likelihood estimate of lambda^a, the rate of anagenesis

lambda_c2

gives the maximum likelihood estimate of lambda^c2, the rate of cladogenesis for the optional second group of species

mu2

gives the maximum likelihood estimate of mu2, the extinction rate for the optional second group of species

K2

gives the maximum likelihood estimate of K2, the carrying-capacity for the optional second group of species

gamma2

gives the maximum likelihood estimate of gamma2, the immigration rate for the optional second group of species

lambda_a2

gives the maximum likelihood estimate of lambda^a2, the rate of anagenesis for the optional second group of species

loglik

gives the maximum loglikelihood

df

gives the number of estimated parameters, i.e. degrees of feedom

conv

gives a message on convergence of optimization; conv = 0 means convergence

Author(s)

Rampal S. Etienne

References

Valente, L.M., A.B. Phillimore and R.S. Etienne (2015). Equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics simultaneously operate in the Galapagos islands. Ecology Letters 18: 844-852. <DOI:10.1111/ele.12461>.

See Also

DAISIE_loglik_all, DAISIE_sim_constant_rate, DAISIE_sim_time_dependent, DAISIE_sim_constant_rate_shift

Examples

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cat("
### When all species have the same rates, and we want to optimize all 5 parameters,
# we use:

utils::data(Galapagos_datalist)
DAISIE_ML(
   datalist = Galapagos_datalist,
   initparsopt = c(2.5,2.7,20,0.009,1.01),
   ddmodel = 11,
   idparsopt = 1:5,
   parsfix = NULL,
   idparsfix = NULL
)

### When all species have the same rates, and we want to optimize all parameters
# except K (which we set equal to Inf), we use:

utils::data(Galapagos_datalist)
DAISIE_ML(
   datalist = Galapagos_datalist,
   initparsopt = c(2.5,2.7,0.009,1.01),
   idparsopt = c(1,2,4,5),
   parsfix = Inf,
   idparsfix = 3
   )

### When all species have the same rates except that the finches have a different
# rate of cladogenesis, and we want to optimize all parameters except K (which we
# set equal to Inf), fixing the proportion of finch-type species at 0.163, we use:

utils::data(Galapagos_datalist_2types)
DAISIE_ML(
   datalist = Galapagos_datalist_2types,
   initparsopt = c(0.38,0.55,0.004,1.1,2.28),
   idparsopt = c(1,2,4,5,6),
   parsfix = c(Inf,Inf,0.163),
   idparsfix = c(3,8,11),
   idparsnoshift = c(7,9,10)
   )

### When all species have the same rates except that the finches have a different
# rate of cladogenesis, extinction and a different K, and we want to optimize all
# parameters, fixing the proportion of finch-type species at 0.163, we use:

utils::data(Galapagos_datalist_2types)
DAISIE_ML(
   datalist = Galapagos_datalist_2types,
   ddmodel = 11,
   initparsopt = c(0.19,0.09,0.002,0.87,20,8.9,15),
   idparsopt = c(1,2,4,5,6,7,8),
   parsfix = c(Inf,0.163),
   idparsfix = c(3,11),
   idparsnoshift = c(9,10)
   )


### When all species have the same rates except that the finches have a different
# rate of extinction, and we want to optimize all parameters except K (which we
# set equal to Inf), and we also# want to estimate the fraction of finch species
# in the mainland pool. we use:

utils::data(Galapagos_datalist_2types)
DAISIE_ML(
   datalist = Galapagos_datalist_2types,
   initparsopt = c(2.48,2.7,0.009,1.01,2.25,0.163),
   idparsopt = c(1,2,4,5,7,11),
   parsfix = c(Inf,Inf),
   idparsfix = c(3,8),
   idparsnoshift = c(6,9,10)
   )

### When we have two islands with the same rates except for immigration and anagenesis rate,
# and we want to optimize all parameters, we use:

utils::data(Galapagos_datalist)
DAISIE_ML(
   datalist = list(Galapagos_datalist,Galapagos_datalist),
   datatype = 'multiple',
   initparsopt = c(2.5,2.7,20,0.009,1.01,0.009,1.01),
   idparsmat = rbind(1:5,c(1:3,6,7)),
   idparsopt = 1:7,
   parsfix = NULL,
   idparsfix = NULL
)

### When we consider the four Macaronesia archipelagoes and set all parameters the same
# except for rates of cladogenesis, extinction and immigration for Canary Islands,
# rate of cladogenesis is fixed to 0 for the other archipelagoes,
# diversity-dependence is assumed to be absent
# and we want to optimize all parameters, we use:

utils::data(Macaronesia_datalist)
DAISIE_ML(
   datalist = Macaronesia_datalist,
   datatype = 'multiple',
   initparsopt = c(1.053151832,0.052148979,0.512939011,0.133766934,0.152763179),
   idparsmat = rbind(1:5,c(6,2,3,7,5),1:5,1:5),
   idparsopt = c(2,4,5,6,7),
   parsfix = c(0,Inf),
   idparsfix = c(1,3)
)

")

DAISIE documentation built on Aug. 26, 2020, 5:12 p.m.