GPoM is an R package dedicated to the global modelling
technique.
It has been developped at the
*Centre d'Etudes Spatiales de la Biosphère*^[CESBIO,
UMR5126, Université Toulouse 3 /
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique / Centre
National d'Etudes Spatiales / Institut de Recherche
pour le Développement, 18 avenue Edouard Belin,
31401 Toulouse, FRANCE]$^,$ ^[The developments of the GPoM package
have been funded by the french programs *LEFE / Insu* (2012-2016),
and by the *Défi InFiNiTi / CNRS* (2016-2017)].
The global modelling technique is a model-building approach.
Its aim is to obtain differential equations from time series.
Model-building from data takes its background from
the fields of Electrical Engineering and Statistics
and was originally mostly dedicated to linear problems
^[L. A. Aguirre & C. Letellier, Modeling nonlinear
dynamics and chaos: A review,
*Mathematical Problems in Engineering*, 2009, 238960.].
The more advanced developments of the model-building
approaches have incorporated the Theory of Nonlinear
Dynamical Systems in its background.
Thanks to it, global modelling technique has become well
adapted to model deterministic behaviours of various degree
of nonlinarity (linear, weakly or strongly nonlinear, chaotic),
and it is also well designed to model dynamical
behaviors characterized by a high sentivity
to the initial conditions.

In its Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) formulation,
the global modelling technique was initiated
in the early 1990s^[J. P. Crutchfield & B. S. McNamara, 1987.
Equations of motion from a data series, *Complex Systems* **1**, 417-452.].
Its first illustrations were obtained thanks to
a formalism developped by G. Gouesbet and his
colleagues^[G. Gouesbet & J. Maquet, 1992. Construction
of phenomenological models from numerical scalar time
series, *Physica D*, **58**, 202-215.]$^,$ ^[G. Gouesbet & C. Letellier, 1994. Global vector-field reconstruction
by using a multivariate polynomial L2 approximation
on nets, *Physical Review E*, **49**, 4955-4972.].
The ability to obtain equations of a chosen system
may highly vary depending on what variables
are used to reconstruct the equations.
The set of observed variables plays a very important
role when trying to retrieve governing equations
for any dynamical system.
This question was investigated during
the last decades^[C. Letellier, L. A. Aguirre &
J. Maquet, 2005. Relation between observability
and differential embeddings for nonlinear dynamics,
*Physical Review E*, **71**, 066213.]$^,$ ^[L.A. Aguirre &
C. Letellier, 2011. Investigating observability properties
from data in non-linear dynamics. *Physical Review E*,
**83**, 066209.]$^,$ ^[L.A. Aguirre, L. L. Portes &
C. Letellier, 2018. Structural, Dynamical and Symbolic
Observability: From Dynamical Systems to Networks.
*IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems*,
arXiv:1806.08909v1.].

It is only in the 2000s that a set of
ODEs could be directly obtained from real world data set^[J. Maquet,
C. Letellier & L. A. Aguirre 2007. Global models
from the Canadian Lynx cycles as a first evidence
for chaos in real ecosystems, *Journal of Mathematical Biology*,
**55**(1), 21-39.].
New algorithms were developped at the begining
of the 2010s^[S. Mangiarotti, R. Coudret, L. Drapeau
& L. Jarlan, 2012. Polynomial search and global modeling:
Two algorithms for modeling chaos,” *Physical Review E*, **86**(4),
046205.] that have proven to have a very high level of performance
to model dynamical behaviors observed under real environmental
conditions: cereal crops cycles, snow area cycles,
eco-epidemiology, etc.^[S. Mangiarotti, L. Drapeau &
C. Letellier, 2014. Two chaotic global models for cereal
crops cycles observed from satellite in Northern Morocco,
*Chaos*, **24**, 023130.]$^,$ ^[S. Mangiarotti, Modélisation globale
et caractérisation topologique de dynamiques environnementales:
de l'analyse des enveloppes fluides et du couvert de surface
de la Terre à la caractérisation topolodynamique du
chaos, Habilitation to Direct Researches, Université de
Toulouse 3, 2014.], etc.

All these developments were initialy developped
to model dynamical behaviors from single time series.
Recent developments have shown that the global
modelling technique can also be applied to
model multivariate couplings^[S. Mangiarotti, 2015. Low
dimensional chaotic models for the plague epidemic in
Bombay, *Chaos, Solitons & Fractals*, **81**(A), 184-196.]$^,$ ^[S.
Mangiarotti, M. Peyre & M. Huc, 2016.
A chaotic model for the epidemic of Ebola virus disease
in West Africa (2013–2016). *Chaos*, **26**, 113112.].

The present package provides global modelling tools for the modelling of linear and nonlinear behaviors directly from time series.

Seven illustrative `vignettes`

are provided to introduce
the package which can be used as a tutorial and as a
demonstrator. These are as follows:

(1) `1 Conventions`

introduces the conventions
used to formulate sets of ODEs of polynomial form
with `GPoM`

and shows how to integrate them numerically,

(2) `2 PreProcessing`

provides some simple
examples of time series preprocessing before
applying the global modelling technique,

(3) `3 Modelling`

is dedicated to the global
modelling itself. Several case studies are presented
considering single and multiple time series, both for
modelling or detecting causal couplings,

(4) `4 VisuOutput`

shows how to get an overview
of the output obtained with global modelling
functions and explains how these are organised,

(5) `5 Predictability`

provides basic examples
of validation considering the models performances in
term of predictability,

(6) `6 Robustness`

illustrates the robustness of
the global modelling technique under various types
of degraded conditions: noisy time series, subsampling/resampling,
short time series length, sensitivity to initial conditions,

(7) `7 Retromodelling`

shows the ability of
the global modelling technique to unveil the original
equations when all the system variables are available.

The present GPoM package is made available to whom would like to use it. It includes most of the latest developments presently available for global modelling in ODE form, and we are happy to share it with you. Please refer to the following publications when using the present tools.

For univariate time series modelling:
[1] S. Mangiarotti, R. Coudret, L. Drapeau
& L. Jarlan, 2012. Polynomial search and global modeling:
Two algorithms for modeling chaos,” *Physical Review E*,
**86**(4), 046205.
https://journals.aps.org/pre/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046205

For infering causal couplings and for detecting or analysing
multivariate couplings:
[2] S. Mangiarotti, 2015. Low
dimensional chaotic models for the plague epidemic in
Bombay, *Chaos, Solitons & Fractals*, **81**(A), 184-196.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960077915002933

For using the generalized formulation of global
modelling (that combines multiariate time series
and some of their derivatives):
[3] S. Mangiarotti, M. Peyre & M. Huc, 2016.
A chaotic model for the epidemic of Ebola virus disease
in West Africa (2013–2016). *Chaos*, **26**, 113112.
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.4967730

For the time series resampling (before applying
the global modelling technique):
[4] S. Mangiarotti, 2018. The global modelling
classification technique applied to the detection of chaotic attractors.
https://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0960077917305040-mmc1.pdf
*Supplementary Material A* to
"Can the global modelling technique be used for crop classification?"
by S. Mangiarotti, A.K. Sharma, S. Corgne, L. Hubert-Moy, L. Ruiz, M.
Sekhar, Y. Kerr, 2018. *Chaos, Solitons & Fractals*, **106**, 363-378.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960077917305040

For modelling the dynamics of aggregated (or associated) time series:
[5] S. Mangiarotti, F. Le Jean, M. Huc, C. Letellier, 2016.
Global modeling of aggregated and associated chaotic
dynamics. *Chaos Solitons Fractals*, **83**, 82–96.

When topological properties can not be derived from the observational data and from the model (either due to noisy conditions, or high dimensional dynamic), alternative approaches have to be used for validation. Note that various validation methods have been introduced in [3]. https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.4967730 Note that when a validation based on topological properties is possible, a validation of high precision can be performed as examplified in the supplementary matials https://journals.aps.org/pre/supplemental/10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046205/SuppMatos_PhysRevE_Pub_sept2012.pdf of reference [1] https://journals.aps.org/pre/supplemental/10.1103/PhysRevE.86.046205.

The authors of the package decline any responsability about the results and interpretations obtained and made by other users.

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