R/layers-activations.R

Defines functions layer_activation_relu layer_activation_softmax layer_activation_selu layer_activation_elu layer_activation_thresholded_relu layer_activation_parametric_relu layer_activation_leaky_relu layer_activation

Documented in layer_activation layer_activation_elu layer_activation_leaky_relu layer_activation_parametric_relu layer_activation_relu layer_activation_selu layer_activation_softmax layer_activation_thresholded_relu

#' Apply an activation function to an output.
#'
#' @param input_shape Input shape (list of integers, does not include the
#'  samples axis) which is required when using this layer as the first layer in
#'  a model.
#'
#' @inheritParams layer_dense
#'
#' @family core layers
#' @family activation layers
#'
#' @export
layer_activation <- function(object, activation, input_shape = NULL,
                             batch_input_shape = NULL, batch_size = NULL, dtype = NULL,
                             name = NULL, trainable = NULL, weights = NULL) {

  create_layer(keras$layers$Activation, object, list(
    activation = activation,
    input_shape = normalize_shape(input_shape),
    batch_input_shape = normalize_shape(batch_input_shape),
    batch_size = as_nullable_integer(batch_size),
    dtype = dtype,
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  ))

}

#' Leaky version of a Rectified Linear Unit.
#'
#' Allows a small gradient when the unit is not active: `f(x) = alpha * x` for
#' `x < 0`, `f(x) = x` for `x >= 0`.
#'
#' @inheritParams layer_activation
#' @param alpha float >= 0. Negative slope coefficient.
#'
#' @seealso [Rectifier Nonlinearities Improve Neural Network Acoustic
#'   Models](https://ai.stanford.edu/~amaas/papers/relu_hybrid_icml2013_final.pdf).
#'
#' @family activation layers
#'
#' @export
layer_activation_leaky_relu <- function(object, alpha = 0.3, input_shape = NULL,
                                        batch_input_shape = NULL, batch_size = NULL,
                                        dtype = NULL, name = NULL, trainable = NULL,
                                        weights = NULL) {

  create_layer(keras$layers$LeakyReLU, object, list(
    alpha = alpha,
    input_shape = normalize_shape(input_shape),
    batch_input_shape = normalize_shape(batch_input_shape),
    batch_size = as_nullable_integer(batch_size),
    dtype = dtype,
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  ))

}

#' Parametric Rectified Linear Unit.
#'
#' It follows: `f(x) = alpha * x`` for `x < 0`, `f(x) = x` for `x >= 0`, where
#' alpha is a learned array with the same shape as x.
#'
#' @inheritParams layer_activation
#' @param alpha_initializer Initializer function for the weights.
#' @param alpha_regularizer Regularizer for the weights.
#' @param alpha_constraint Constraint for the weights.
#' @param shared_axes The axes along which to share learnable parameters for the
#'   activation function. For example, if the incoming feature maps are from a
#'   2D convolution with output shape (batch, height, width, channels), and you
#'   wish to share parameters across space so that each filter only has one set
#'   of parameters, set shared_axes=c(1, 2).
#'
#' @seealso [Delving Deep into Rectifiers: Surpassing Human-Level Performance on
#'   ImageNet Classification](https://arxiv.org/abs/1502.01852).
#'
#' @family activation layers
#'
#' @export
layer_activation_parametric_relu <- function(object, alpha_initializer = "zeros", alpha_regularizer = NULL,
                                             alpha_constraint = NULL, shared_axes = NULL,
                                             input_shape = NULL,
                                             batch_input_shape = NULL, batch_size = NULL,
                                             dtype = NULL, name = NULL, trainable = NULL,
                                             weights = NULL) {

  # build args
  args <- list(
    alpha_initializer = alpha_initializer,
    alpha_regularizer = alpha_regularizer,
    alpha_constraint = alpha_constraint
  )
  if (!is.null(shared_axes))
    args$shared_axes <- as.list(as.integer(shared_axes))
  args$input_shape <- normalize_shape(input_shape)
  args$batch_input_shape <- normalize_shape(batch_input_shape)
  args$batch_size <- as_nullable_integer(batch_size)
  args$dtype <- dtype
  args$name <- name
  args$trainable <- trainable
  args$weights <- weights

  # call layer
  create_layer(keras$layers$PReLU, object, args)
}


#' Thresholded Rectified Linear Unit.
#'
#' It follows: `f(x) = x` for `x > theta`, `f(x) = 0` otherwise.
#'
#' @inheritParams layer_activation
#' @param theta float >= 0. Threshold location of activation.
#'
#' @seealso [Zero-bias autoencoders and the benefits of co-adapting features](https://arxiv.org/abs/1402.3337).
#'
#' @family activation layers
#'
#' @export
layer_activation_thresholded_relu <- function(object, theta = 1.0, input_shape = NULL,
                                              batch_input_shape = NULL, batch_size = NULL,
                                              dtype = NULL, name = NULL, trainable = NULL,
                                              weights = NULL) {

  create_layer(keras$layers$ThresholdedReLU, object, list(
    theta = theta,
    input_shape = normalize_shape(input_shape),
    batch_input_shape = normalize_shape(batch_input_shape),
    batch_size = as_nullable_integer(batch_size),
    dtype = dtype,
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  ))

}


#' Exponential Linear Unit.
#'
#' It follows: `f(x) =  alpha * (exp(x) - 1.0)` for `x < 0`, `f(x) = x` for `x >= 0`.
#'
#' @inheritParams layer_activation
#' @param alpha Scale for the negative factor.
#'
#' @seealso [Fast and Accurate Deep Network Learning by Exponential Linear Units
#'   (ELUs)](https://arxiv.org/abs/1511.07289v1).
#'
#' @family activation layers
#'
#' @export
layer_activation_elu <- function(object, alpha = 1.0, input_shape = NULL,
                                 batch_input_shape = NULL, batch_size = NULL, dtype = NULL,
                                 name = NULL, trainable = NULL, weights = NULL) {

  create_layer(keras$layers$ELU, object, list(
    alpha = alpha,
    input_shape = normalize_shape(input_shape),
    batch_input_shape = normalize_shape(batch_input_shape),
    batch_size = as_nullable_integer(batch_size),
    dtype = dtype,
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  ))

}

#' Scaled Exponential Linear Unit.
#'
#' SELU is equal to: `scale * elu(x, alpha)`, where alpha and scale
#' are pre-defined constants.
#'
#' The values of `alpha` and `scale` are
#' chosen so that the mean and variance of the inputs are preserved
#' between two consecutive layers as long as the weights are initialized
#' correctly (see initializer_lecun_normal) and the number of inputs
#' is "large enough" (see article for more information).
#'
#' Note:
#' - To be used together with the initialization "lecun_normal".
#' - To be used together with the dropout variant "AlphaDropout".
#'
#' @inheritParams layer_activation
#'
#' @seealso [Self-Normalizing Neural Networks](https://arxiv.org/abs/1706.02515), \code{\link{initializer_lecun_normal}}, \code{\link{layer_alpha_dropout}}
#'
#' @family activation layers
#'
#' @export
layer_activation_selu <- function(object, input_shape = NULL,
                                 batch_input_shape = NULL, batch_size = NULL, dtype = NULL,
                                 name = NULL, trainable = NULL, weights = NULL) {

  create_layer(keras$layers$Activation, object, list(
    activation = "selu",
    input_shape = normalize_shape(input_shape),
    batch_input_shape = normalize_shape(batch_input_shape),
    batch_size = as_nullable_integer(batch_size),
    dtype = dtype,
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  ))

}

#' Softmax activation function.
#'
#' It follows: `f(x) =  alpha * (exp(x) - 1.0)` for `x < 0`, `f(x) = x` for `x >= 0`.
#'
#' @inheritParams layer_activation
#' @param axis Integer, axis along which the softmax normalization is applied.
#'
#' @family activation layers
#'
#' @export
layer_activation_softmax <- function(object, axis = -1, input_shape = NULL,
                                     batch_input_shape = NULL, batch_size = NULL, dtype = NULL,
                                     name = NULL, trainable = NULL, weights = NULL) {

  create_layer(keras$layers$Softmax, object, list(
    axis = as.integer(axis),
    input_shape = normalize_shape(input_shape),
    batch_input_shape = normalize_shape(batch_input_shape),
    batch_size = as_nullable_integer(batch_size),
    dtype = dtype,
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  ))

}

#' Rectified Linear Unit activation function
#'
#' @inheritParams layer_activation
#'
#' @param max_value loat, the maximum output value.
#' @param negative_slope float >= 0 Negative slope coefficient.
#' @param threshold float. Threshold value for thresholded activation.
#'
#' @family activation layers
#'
#' @export
layer_activation_relu <- function(object, max_value = NULL, negative_slope = 0, threshold = 0,
                                  input_shape = NULL, batch_input_shape = NULL, batch_size = NULL,
                                  dtype = NULL, name = NULL, trainable = NULL,
                                  weights = NULL) {

  args <- list(
    max_value = max_value,
    input_shape = normalize_shape(input_shape),
    batch_input_shape = normalize_shape(batch_input_shape),
    batch_size = as_nullable_integer(batch_size),
    dtype = dtype,
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  )

  if (keras_version() >= "2.2.3") {
    args$negative_slope <- negative_slope
    args$threshold <- threshold
  }

  create_layer(keras$layers$ReLU, object, args)
}

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keras documentation built on Aug. 21, 2021, 9:07 a.m.