R/layers-core.R

Defines functions stop_with_invalid_layer compose_layer.numeric compose_layer.list compose_layer.python.builtin.object compose_layer.keras.models.Sequential compose_layer.default compose_layer create_layer normalize_shape normalize_path as_layer_index as_nullable_integer as_integer_tuple as_integer layer_flatten layer_masking layer_activity_regularization layer_lambda layer_repeat_vector layer_permute layer_reshape layer_dense layer_input

Documented in create_layer layer_activity_regularization layer_dense layer_flatten layer_input layer_lambda layer_masking layer_permute layer_repeat_vector layer_reshape

#' Input layer
#' 
#' Layer to be used as an entry point into a graph.
#' 
#' @param shape Shape, not including the batch size. For instance, 
#'   `shape=c(32)` indicates that the expected input will be batches
#'   of 32-dimensional vectors.
#' @param batch_shape Shape, including the batch size. For instance,
#' `shape = c(10,32)` indicates that the expected input will be batches
#'  of 10 32-dimensional vectors. `batch_shape = list(NULL, 32)` indicates
#'  batches of an arbitrary number of 32-dimensional vectors.
#' @param name An optional name string for the layer. Should be unique in a 
#'   model (do not reuse the same name twice). It will be autogenerated if it 
#'   isn't provided.
#' @param dtype  The data type expected by the input, as a string (`float32`, 
#'   `float64`, `int32`...)
#' @param sparse Boolean, whether the placeholder created is meant to be sparse.
#' @param tensor Existing tensor to wrap into the `Input` layer. If set, the
#'   layer will not create a placeholder tensor.
#'   
#' @return A tensor   
#'   
#' @family core layers   
#'   
#' @export
layer_input <- function(shape = NULL, batch_shape = NULL, name = NULL,
                        dtype = NULL, sparse = FALSE, tensor = NULL) {
  args <- list(
    name = name,
    dtype = ifelse(is.null(dtype), keras$backend$floatx(), dtype),
    sparse = sparse,
    tensor = tensor
  )
  
  if (!missing(shape))
    args$shape <- normalize_shape(shape)
  if (!missing(batch_shape))
    args$batch_shape <- normalize_shape(batch_shape)
  
  do.call(keras$layers$Input, args)
}

#' Add a densely-connected NN layer to an output
#' 
#' Implements the operation: `output = activation(dot(input, kernel) + bias)` 
#' where `activation` is the element-wise activation function passed as the 
#' `activation` argument, `kernel` is a weights matrix created by the layer, and
#' `bias` is a bias vector created by the layer (only applicable if `use_bias` 
#' is `TRUE`). Note: if the input to the layer has a rank greater than 2, then 
#' it is flattened prior to the initial dot product with `kernel`.
#' 
#' @inheritParams layer_input
#' 
#' @param object Model or layer object
#' @param units Positive integer, dimensionality of the output space.
#' @param activation Name of activation function to use. If you don't specify 
#'   anything, no activation is applied (ie. "linear" activation: a(x) = x).
#' @param use_bias Whether the layer uses a bias vector.
#' @param kernel_initializer Initializer for the `kernel` weights matrix.
#' @param bias_initializer Initializer for the bias vector.
#' @param kernel_regularizer Regularizer function applied to the `kernel` 
#'   weights matrix.
#' @param bias_regularizer Regularizer function applied to the bias vector.
#' @param activity_regularizer Regularizer function applied to the output of the
#'   layer (its "activation")..
#' @param kernel_constraint Constraint function applied to the `kernel` weights 
#'   matrix.
#' @param bias_constraint  Constraint function applied to the bias vector.
#' @param input_shape Dimensionality of the input (integer) not including the
#'   samples axis. This argument is required when using this layer as the first
#'   layer in a model.
#' @param batch_input_shape Shapes, including the batch size. For instance, 
#'   `batch_input_shape=c(10, 32)` indicates that the expected input will be
#'   batches of 10 32-dimensional vectors. `batch_input_shape=list(NULL, 32)`
#'   indicates batches of an arbitrary number of 32-dimensional vectors.
#' @param batch_size Fixed batch size for layer
#' @param trainable  Whether the layer weights will be updated during training.
#' @param weights Initial weights for layer.
#'   
#' @section Input and Output Shapes:
#'   
#'   Input shape: nD tensor with shape: `(batch_size, ..., input_dim)`. The most
#'   common situation would be a 2D input with shape `(batch_size, input_dim)`.
#'   
#'   Output shape: nD tensor with shape: `(batch_size, ..., units)`. For 
#'   instance, for a 2D input with shape `(batch_size, input_dim)`, the output 
#'   would have shape `(batch_size, unit)`.
#' 
#' @family core layers   
#'       
#' @export
layer_dense <- function(object, units, activation = NULL, use_bias = TRUE, 
                        kernel_initializer = 'glorot_uniform', bias_initializer = 'zeros', 
                        kernel_regularizer = NULL, bias_regularizer = NULL, activity_regularizer = NULL,
                        kernel_constraint = NULL, bias_constraint = NULL, input_shape = NULL,
                        batch_input_shape = NULL, batch_size = NULL, dtype = NULL, 
                        name = NULL, trainable = NULL, weights = NULL
                        ) {
  
  create_layer(keras$layers$Dense, object, list(
    units = as.integer(units),
    activation = activation,
    use_bias = use_bias,
    kernel_initializer = kernel_initializer,
    bias_initializer = bias_initializer,
    kernel_regularizer = kernel_regularizer,
    bias_regularizer = bias_regularizer,
    activity_regularizer = activity_regularizer,
    kernel_constraint = kernel_constraint,
    bias_constraint = bias_constraint, 
    input_shape = normalize_shape(input_shape),
    batch_input_shape = normalize_shape(batch_input_shape),
    batch_size = as_nullable_integer(batch_size),
    dtype = dtype,
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  ))
  
}

#' Reshapes an output to a certain shape.
#' 
#' @inheritParams layer_activation
#'   
#' @param target_shape List of integers, does not include the samples dimension 
#'   (batch size).
#'   
#' @section Input and Output Shapes:
#'   
#'   Input shape: Arbitrary, although all dimensions in the input shaped must be
#'   fixed.
#'   
#'   Output shape: `(batch_size,) + target_shape`.
#' 
#' @family core layers   
#'   
#' @export
layer_reshape <- function(object, target_shape, input_shape = NULL,
                          batch_input_shape = NULL, batch_size = NULL, dtype = NULL, 
                          name = NULL, trainable = NULL, weights = NULL) {
  
  create_layer(keras$layers$Reshape, object, list(
    target_shape = normalize_shape(target_shape),
    input_shape = normalize_shape(input_shape),
    batch_input_shape = normalize_shape(batch_input_shape),
    batch_size = as_nullable_integer(batch_size),
    dtype = dtype,
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  ))
  
}


#' Permute the dimensions of an input according to a given pattern
#' 
#' @param dims List of integers. Permutation pattern, does not include the 
#'   samples dimension. Indexing starts at 1. For instance, `(2, 1)` permutes 
#'   the first and second dimension of the input.
#'   
#' @inheritParams layer_activation
#'   
#' @section Input and Output Shapes:
#'   
#'   Input shape: Arbitrary
#'   
#'   Output shape: Same as the input shape, but with the dimensions re-ordered
#'   according to the specified pattern.
#'   
#' @note Useful for e.g. connecting RNNs and convnets together.
#'   
#' @family core layers   
#'   
#' @export
layer_permute <- function(object, dims, input_shape = NULL,
                          batch_input_shape = NULL, batch_size = NULL, dtype = NULL, 
                          name = NULL, trainable = NULL, weights = NULL) {
  
  create_layer(keras$layers$Permute, object, list(
    dims = as_integer_tuple(dims, force_tuple = TRUE),
    input_shape = normalize_shape(input_shape),
    batch_input_shape = normalize_shape(batch_input_shape),
    batch_size = as_nullable_integer(batch_size),
    dtype = dtype,
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  ))
  
}

#' Repeats the input n times.
#' 
#' @inheritParams layer_dense
#' 
#' @param n integer, repetition factor.
#'   
#' @section Input shape: 2D tensor of shape `(num_samples, features)`.
#'   
#' @section Output shape: 3D tensor of shape `(num_samples, n, features)`.
#'   
#' @family core layers   
#'   
#' @export
layer_repeat_vector <- function(object, n, 
                                batch_size = NULL, name = NULL, trainable = NULL, weights = NULL) {
  
  create_layer(keras$layers$RepeatVector, object, list(
    n = as.integer(n),
    batch_size = as_nullable_integer(batch_size),
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  ))
  
}

#' Wraps arbitrary expression as a layer
#' 
#' @inheritParams layer_dense
#' 
#' @param f The function to be evaluated. Takes input tensor as first
#'   argument.
#' @param output_shape Expected output shape from the function (not required
#'   when using TensorFlow back-end).
#' @param mask mask
#' @param arguments optional named list of keyword arguments to be passed to the
#'   function.
#'   
#' @section Input shape: Arbitrary. Use the keyword argument input_shape (list
#'   of integers, does not include the samples axis) when using this layer as
#'   the first layer in a model.
#'   
#' @section Output shape: Arbitrary (based on tensor returned from the function)
#'  
#' @family core layers   
#'     
#' @export
layer_lambda <- function(object, f, output_shape = NULL, mask = NULL, arguments = NULL, 
                         input_shape = NULL, batch_input_shape = NULL, batch_size = NULL, dtype = NULL, 
                         name = NULL, trainable = NULL, weights = NULL) {
  
  args <- list(
    `function` = f,
    mask = mask,
    arguments = arguments,
    input_shape = normalize_shape(input_shape),
    batch_input_shape = normalize_shape(batch_input_shape),
    batch_size = as_nullable_integer(batch_size),
    dtype = dtype,
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  )
  
  if (backend()$backend() %in% c("theano", "cntk"))
    args$output_shape <- as_integer_tuple(output_shape, force_tuple = TRUE)
  else if(!is.null(output_shape))
    args$output_shape <- normalize_shape(output_shape)
    
  
  create_layer(keras$layers$Lambda, object, args)
  
}


#' Layer that applies an update to the cost function based input activity.
#' 
#' @inheritParams layer_dense
#' 
#' @param l1 L1 regularization factor (positive float).
#' @param l2 L2 regularization factor (positive float).
#'   
#' @section Input shape: Arbitrary. Use the keyword argument `input_shape` (list
#'   of integers, does not include the samples axis) when using this layer as
#'   the first layer in a model.
#'   
#' @section Output shape: Same shape as input.
#' 
#' @family core layers   
#'       
#' @export
layer_activity_regularization <- function(object, l1 = 0.0, l2 = 0.0, input_shape = NULL,
                                          batch_input_shape = NULL, batch_size = NULL, 
                                          dtype = NULL, name = NULL, trainable = NULL, 
                                          weights = NULL) {
  
  create_layer(keras$layers$ActivityRegularization, object, list(
    l1 = l1,
    l2 = l2,
    input_shape = normalize_shape(input_shape),
    batch_input_shape = normalize_shape(batch_input_shape),
    batch_size = as_nullable_integer(batch_size),
    dtype = dtype,
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  ))
  
}

#' Masks a sequence by using a mask value to skip timesteps.
#' 
#' For each timestep in the input tensor (dimension #1 in the tensor), if all
#' values in the input tensor at that timestep are equal to `mask_value`, then
#' the timestep will be masked (skipped) in all downstream layers (as long as
#' they support masking). If any downstream layer does not support masking yet
#' receives such an input mask, an exception will be raised.
#' 
#' @inheritParams layer_dense
#' 
#' @param mask_value float, mask value
#'   
#' @family core layers   
#'   
#' @export
layer_masking <- function(object, mask_value = 0.0, input_shape = NULL,
                          batch_input_shape = NULL, batch_size = NULL, dtype = NULL, 
                          name = NULL, trainable = NULL, weights = NULL) {
  
  create_layer(keras$layers$Masking, object, list(
    mask_value = mask_value,
    input_shape = normalize_shape(input_shape),
    batch_input_shape = normalize_shape(batch_input_shape),
    batch_size = as_nullable_integer(batch_size),
    dtype = dtype,
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  ))
  
}



#' Flattens an input
#'
#' Flatten a given input, does not affect the batch size.
#'
#' @inheritParams layer_activation
#'
#' @param data_format A string. one of `channels_last` (default) or
#'   `channels_first`. The ordering of the dimensions in the inputs. The purpose
#'   of this argument is to preserve weight ordering when switching a model from
#'   one data format to another. `channels_last` corresponds to inputs with
#'   shape `(batch, ..., channels)` while `channels_first` corresponds to inputs
#'   with shape `(batch, channels, ...)`. It defaults to the `image_data_format`
#'   value found in your Keras config file at `~/.keras/keras.json`. If you
#'   never set it, then it will be "channels_last".
#'
#' @family core layers
#'
#' @export
layer_flatten <- function(object, data_format = NULL, input_shape = NULL, dtype = NULL, 
                          name = NULL, trainable = NULL, weights = NULL) {
  
  args <- list(
    input_shape = normalize_shape(input_shape),
    dtype = dtype,
    name = name,
    trainable = trainable,
    weights = weights
  )
  
  if (keras_version() >= "2.2.0") {
    args$data_format <- data_format
  } else if (keras_version() >= "2.1.6") {
    if (is.null(data_format))
      data_format <- "channels_last"
    args$data_format <- data_format
  }
  
  create_layer(keras$layers$Flatten, object, args)
  
}





as_integer <- function(x) {
  if (is.numeric(x))
    as.integer(x)
  else
    x
}

as_integer_tuple <- function(x, force_tuple = FALSE) {
  if (is.null(x))
    x
  else if (is.list(x) || force_tuple)
    tuple(as.list(as.integer(x)))
  else
    as.integer(x)
}

as_nullable_integer <- function(x) {
  if (is.null(x))
    x
  else
    as.integer(x)
}

as_layer_index <- function(x) {
  x <- as_nullable_integer(x)
  if (!is.null(x))
    x <- x - 1L
  x
}

# Helper function to normalize paths
normalize_path <- function(path) {
  if (is.null(path))
    NULL
  else
    normalizePath(path.expand(path), mustWork = FALSE)
}

# Helper function to coerce shape arguments to tuple
normalize_shape <- function(shape) {
  
  # reflect NULL back
  if (is.null(shape))
    return(shape)
  
  # if it's a list or a numeric vector then convert to integer
  if (is.list(shape) || is.numeric(shape)) {
    shape <- lapply(shape, function(value) {
      if (!is.null(value))
        as.integer(value)
      else
        NULL
    })
  }
  
  # coerce to tuple so it's iterable    
  tuple(shape)
}


#' Create a Keras Layer
#' 
#' @param layer_class Python layer class or R6 class of type KerasLayer
#' @param object Object to compose layer with. This is either a 
#' [keras_model_sequential()] to add the layer to, or another Layer which
#' this layer will call.
#' @param args List of arguments to layer constructor function 
#' 
#' @return A Keras layer
#' 
#' @note The `object` parameter can be missing, in which case the 
#' layer is created without a connection to an existing graph.
#' 
#' @export
create_layer <- function(layer_class, object, args = list()) {
  
  # remove kwargs that are null
  args$input_shape <- args$input_shape
  args$batch_input_shape = args$batch_input_shape
  args$batch_size <- args$batch_size
  args$dtype <- args$dtype
  args$name <- args$name
  args$trainable <- args$trainable
  args$weights <- args$weights
  
  # convert custom constraints
  constraint_args <- grepl("^.*_constraint$", names(args))
  constraint_args <- names(args)[constraint_args]
  for (arg in constraint_args)
    args[[arg]] <- as_constraint(args[[arg]])
 
  # if this is an R6 class then create a Python wrapper for it
  if (inherits(layer_class, "R6ClassGenerator")) {
    
    # common layer parameters (e.g. "input_shape") need to be passed to the
    # Python Layer constructor rather than the R6 constructor. Here we
    # extract and set aside any of those arguments we find and set them to
    # NULL within the args list which will be passed to the R6 layer
    common_arg_names <- c("input_shape", "batch_input_shape", "batch_size",
                          "dtype", "name", "trainable", "weights")
    py_wrapper_args <- args[common_arg_names]
    py_wrapper_args[sapply(py_wrapper_args, is.null)] <- NULL
    for (arg in names(py_wrapper_args))
      args[[arg]] <- NULL
    
    # create the R6 layer
    r6_layer <- do.call(layer_class$new, args)
    
    # create the python wrapper (passing the extracted py_wrapper_args)
    python_path <- system.file("python", package = "keras")
    tools <- import_from_path("kerastools", path = python_path)
    py_wrapper_args$r_build <- r6_layer$build
    py_wrapper_args$r_call <-  reticulate::py_func(r6_layer$call)
    py_wrapper_args$r_compute_output_shape <- r6_layer$compute_output_shape
    layer <- do.call(tools$layer$RLayer, py_wrapper_args)
    
    # set back reference in R layer
    r6_layer$.set_wrapper(layer)
    
  } else {
    
    # create layer from class
    layer <- do.call(layer_class, args)
    
  }
  
  # compose if we have an x
  if (missing(object) || is.null(object))
    layer
  else
    invisible(compose_layer(object, layer))
}


# Helper function to compose a layer with an object of type Model or Layer

compose_layer <- function(object, layer) {
  UseMethod("compose_layer")  
}

compose_layer.default <- function(object, layer) {
  stop_with_invalid_layer()
}

compose_layer.keras.models.Sequential <- function(object, layer) {
  object$add(layer)
  object
}

compose_layer.keras.engine.sequential.Sequential <- compose_layer.keras.models.Sequential

compose_layer.python.builtin.object <- function(object, layer) {
  if (is.function(layer))
    layer(object)
  else
    stop_with_invalid_layer()
}

compose_layer.list <- function(object, layer) {
  layer(object)
}

compose_layer.numeric <- function(object, layer) {
  if (!tensorflow::tf_version() >= "1.14") stop_with_invalid_layer()
  if (is.function(layer))
    layer(object)
  else
    stop_with_invalid_layer()
}

stop_with_invalid_layer <- function() {
  stop("Invalid input to layer function (must be a model or a tensor)",
       call. = FALSE)
}

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keras documentation built on Oct. 9, 2019, 1:04 a.m.