R/periods.r

Defines functions summary.Period seconds_to_period period_to_seconds months.numeric picoseconds nanoseconds microseconds milliseconds years weeks days hours minutes seconds is.period .period_from_units .period_from_num parse_period period c.Period xtfrm.Period format.Period check_period

Documented in days hours is.period microseconds milliseconds minutes months.numeric nanoseconds period period_to_seconds picoseconds seconds seconds_to_period weeks years

#' @include timespans.r
#' @include util.r
#' @include durations.r
NULL

check_period <- function(object) {
  errors <- character()

  length(object@.Data) -> n
  lengths <- c(
    length(object@year), length(object@month),
    length(object@day), length(object@hour), length(object@minute)
  )

  if (any(lengths != n)) {
    msg <- paste("Inconsistent lengths: year = ", lengths[1],
      ", month = ", lengths[2],
      ", day = ", lengths[3],
      ", hour = ", lengths[4],
      ", minute = ", lengths[5],
      ", second = ", n,
      sep = ""
    )
    errors <- c(errors, msg)
  }

  values <- c(object@year, object@month, object@day, object@hour, object@minute)
  values <- na.omit(values)
  if (sum(values - trunc(values))) {
    msg <- "periods must have integer values"
    errors <- c(errors, msg)
  }

  if (length(errors) == 0) {
    TRUE
  } else {
    errors
  }
}

#' Period class
#'
#' Period is an S4 class that extends the [Timespan-class] class.
#' Periods track the change in the "clock time" between two date-times. They
#' are measured in common time related units: years, months, days, hours,
#' minutes, and seconds. Each unit except for seconds must be expressed in
#' integer values.
#'
#' The exact length of a period is not defined until the period is placed at a
#' specific moment of time. This is because the precise length of one year,
#' month, day, etc. can change depending on when it occurs due to daylight savings,
#' leap years, and other conventions. A period can be
#' associated with a specific moment in time by coercing it to an
#' [Interval-class] object with [as.interval()] or by adding
#' it to a date-time with "+".
#'
#' Periods provide a method for measuring generalized timespans when we wish to
#' model clock times. Periods will attain intuitive results at this task even
#' when leap years, leap seconds, gregorian days, daylight savings changes, and
#' other events happen during the period.
#'
#' Because Period represents imprecise amount of time it cannot be compared to
#' precise timestamps as Durations and Intervals are. You need to explicitely
#' convert to durations. See [Duration-class].
#'
#' The logic that guides arithmetic with periods can be unintuitive. Starting
#' with version 1.3.0, \pkg{lubridate} enforces the reversible property of arithmetic
#' (e.g. a date + period - period = date) by returning an NA if you create an
#' implausible date by adding periods with months or years units to a date. For
#' example,  adding one month to January 31st, 2013 results in February 31st,
#' 2013, which is not a real date. \pkg{lubridate} users have argued in the past that
#' February 31st, 2013 should be rolled over to March 3rd, 2013 or rolled back
#' to February 28, 2013. However, each of these corrections would destroy the
#' reversibility of addition (Mar 3 - one month == Feb 3 != Jan 31, Feb 28 - one
#' month == Jan 28 != Jan 31). If you would like to add and subtract months in a
#' way that rolls the results back to the last day of a month (when appropriate)
#' use the special operators, \code{\link{\%m+\%}},  \code{\link{\%m-\%}} or a
#' bit more flexible [add_with_rollback()].
#'
#' Period class objects have six slots. 1) .Data, a numeric object. The
#' apparent amount of seconds to add to the period. 2) minute, a numeric object.
#' The apparent amount of minutes to add to the period. 3) hour, a numeric object.
#' The apparent amount of hours to add to the period.4) day, a numeric object.
#' The apparent amount of days to add to the period.5) month, a numeric object.
#' The apparent amount of months to add to the period. 6) year, a numeric object.
#' The apparent amount of years to add to the period.
#'
#' @export
#' @keywords internal
setClass("Period",
  contains = c("Timespan", "numeric"),
  slots = c(
    year = "numeric", month = "numeric", day = "numeric",
    hour = "numeric", minute = "numeric"
  ),
  prototype = prototype(year = 0, month = 0, day = 0, hour = 0, minute = 0),
  validity = check_period
)

#' @name hidden_aliases
#' @aliases Arith,ANY,Period-method Arith,Duration,Period-method
#'   Arith,Period,Duration-method Compare,Period,Duration-method
#'   Compare,numeric,Period-method Compare,difftime,Period-method
#'   Compare,Period,difftime-method Compare,Period,Period-method
#'   Compare,Period,character-method Compare,Period,numeric-method
#'   Compare,character,Period-method second,Period-method second<-,Period-method
#'   minute,Period-method minute<-,Period-method hour,Period-method hour<-,Period-method
#'   Arith,Period,ANY-method day,Period-method day<-,Period-method month,Period-method
#'   month<-,Period-method year,Period-method year<-,Period-method date,Period-method
#'   date<-,Period-method as.numeric,Period-method as.integer,Period-method
#'   show,Period-method c,Period-method rep,Period-method [,Period-method
#'   [<-,Period,ANY,ANY,Period-method [[,Period-method [[<-,Period,ANY,ANY,Period-method
#'   $,Period-method $<-,Period-method as.difftime,Period-method
#'   as.character,Period-method +,Period,Duration-method +,Period,Interval-method
#'   +,Period,Period-method +,Period,Date-method +,Date,Period-method
#'   +,Period,difftime-method +,difftime,Period-method +,Period,numeric-method
#'   +,numeric,Period-method +,Period,POSIXct-method +,POSIXct,Period-method
#'   +,Period,POSIXlt-method +,POSIXlt,Period-method /,Period,Duration-method
#'   /,Period,Interval-method /,Period,Period-method /,Period,difftime-method
#'   /,difftime,Period-method /,Period,numeric-method /,numeric,Period-method
#'   *,Period,ANY-method *,ANY,Period-method -,Period,ANY-method -,Period,missing-method
#'   -,ANY,Period-method -,Period,Period-method %%,Period,Duration-method
#'   %%,Period,Interval-method %%,Period,Period-method >,Period,Period-method
#'   >=,Period,Period-method ==,Period,Period-method !=,Period,Period-method
#'   <=,Period,Period-method <,Period,Period-method >,Period,Duration-method
#'   >=,Period,Duration-method ==,Period,Duration-method !=,Period,Duration-method
#'   <=,Period,Duration-method <,Period,Duration-method >,Duration,Period-method
#'   >=,Duration,Period-method ==,Duration,Period-method !=,Duration,Period-method
#'   <=,Duration,Period-method <,Duration,Period-method >,Period,numeric-method
#'   >=,Period,numeric-method ==,Period,numeric-method !=,Period,numeric-method
#'   <=,Period,numeric-method <,Period,numeric-method >,numeric,Period-method
#'   >=,numeric,Period-method ==,numeric,Period-method !=,numeric,Period-method
#'   <=,numeric,Period-method <,numeric,Period-method !=,Duration,Period
#'   !=,Period,Duration !=,Period,Period !=,Period,numeric !=,numeric,Period
#'   %%,Period,Duration %%,Period,Interval %%,Period,Period *,ANY,Period *,Period,ANY
#'   -,ANY,Period -,Period,Interval -,Period,missing /,numeric,Period <,Duration,Period
#'   <,Period,Duration <,Period,Period <,Period,numeric <,numeric,Period
#'   <=,Duration,Period <=,Period,Duration <=,Period,Period <=,Period,numeric
#'   <=,numeric,Period ==,Duration,Period ==,Period,Duration ==,Period,Period
#'   ==,Period,numeric ==,numeric,Period >,Duration,Period >,Period,Duration
#'   >,Period,Period >,Period,numeric >,numeric,Period >=,Duration,Period
#'   >=,Period,Duration >=,Period,Period >=,Period,numeric >=,numeric,Period
#'   -,Period,Date-method -,Period,Duration-method -,Period,POSIXct-method
#'   -,Period,POSIXlt-method -,Period,numeric-method -,Date,Period-method
#'   -,numeric,Period-method -,POSIXlt,Period-method -,POSIXct,Period-method
NULL

setMethod("initialize", "Period", function(.Object, ...) {
  dots <- list(...)
  names(dots)[!nzchar(allNames(dots))] <- ".Data"
  lens <- unlist(lapply(dots, length), F, F)

  ## if any 0-length components, the entire object is 0-length
  if (any(lens == 0)) {
    for (nm in slotNames(.Object)) {
      slot(.Object, nm) <- numeric()
    }
    validObject(.Object)
    return(.Object)
  }

  len <- max(lens)
  nas <- FALSE
  for (nm in slotNames(.Object)) {
    el <-
      if (is.null(obj <- dots[[nm]])) {
        rep.int(0L, len)
      } else {
        if (length(obj) < len) {
          rep_len(obj, len)
        } else {
          obj
        }
      }
    nas <- nas | is.na(el)
    slot(.Object, nm) <- el
  }

  ## If any component has NAs the entire object should have those NAs
  if (any(nas)) {
    for (nm in slotNames(.Object)) {
      slot(.Object, nm)[nas] <- NA_real_
    }
  }

  validObject(.Object)
  .Object
})

#' @export
setMethod("show", signature(object = "Period"), function(object) {
  if (length(object@.Data) == 0) {
    cat("<Period[0]>\n")
  } else {
    print(format(object))
  }
})

#' @export
format.Period <- function(x, ...) {
  if (length(x) == 0) {
    return(character())
  }

  show <- paste(
    x@year, "y ", x@month, "m ", x@day, "d ",
    x@hour, "H ", x@minute, "M ", x@.Data, "S",
    sep = ""
  )
  start <- regexpr("[-1-9]|(0\\.)", show)
  show <- ifelse(start > 0, substr(show, start, nchar(show)), "0S")

  show[is.na(x)] <- NA
  show
}

#' @export
xtfrm.Period <- function(x) {
  xtfrm(period_to_seconds(x))
}

#' @export
c.Period <- function(...) {
  dots <- list(...)
  nempty <- sapply(dots, length) != 0
  elements <- lapply(dots[nempty], as.period)
  seconds <- unlist(lapply(elements, slot, ".Data"))
  # don't keep names for slots
  elements <- unname(elements)
  years <- unlist(lapply(elements, slot, "year"))
  months <- unlist(lapply(elements, slot, "month"))
  days <- unlist(lapply(elements, slot, "day"))
  hours <- unlist(lapply(elements, slot,  "hour"))
  minutes <- unlist(lapply(elements, slot, "minute"))
  new("Period",
    seconds, year = years, month = months,
    day = days, hour = hours, minute = minutes
  )
}

#' @export
setMethod("rep", signature(x = "Period"), function(x, ...) {
  new("Period", rep(x@.Data, ...),
    year = rep(x@year, ...),
    month = rep(x@month, ...), day = rep(x@day, ...),
    hour = rep(x@hour, ...), minute = rep(x@minute, ...)
  )
})

#' @export
setMethod(
  "[", signature(x = "Period"),
  function(x, i, j, ..., drop = TRUE) {
    new("Period", x@.Data[i],
      year = x@year[i], month = x@month[i],
      day = x@day[i], hour = x@hour[i], minute = x@minute[i]
    )
  }
)

#' @export
setMethod(
  "[[", signature(x = "Period"),
  function(x, i, j, ..., exact = TRUE) {
    new("Period", x@.Data[i],
      year = x@year[i], month = x@month[i],
      day = x@day[i], hour = x@hour[i], minute = x@minute[i]
    )
  }
)

#' @export
setMethod(
  "[<-", signature(x = "Period", value = "Period"),
  function(x, i, j, ..., value) {
    x@.Data[i] <- value@.Data
    x@year[i] <- value@year
    x@month[i] <- value@month
    x@day[i] <- value@day
    x@hour[i] <- value@hour
    x@minute[i] <- value@minute
    x
  }
)

#' @export
setMethod(
  "[[<-", signature(x = "Period", value = "Period"),
  function(x, i, j, ..., value) {
    x@.Data[i] <- value@.Data
    x@year[i] <- value@year
    x@month[i] <- value@month
    x@day[i] <- value@day
    x@hour[i] <- value@hour
    x@minute[i] <- value@minute
    x
  }
)

#' @export
setMethod("$", signature(x = "Period"), function(x, name) {
  if (name == "second") name <- ".Data"
  slot(x, name)
})

#' @export
setMethod("$<-", signature(x = "Period"), function(x, name, value) {
  if (name == "second") name <- ".Data"
  slot(x, name) <- rep_len(value, length(x))
  x
})

#' Create or parse period objects
#'
#' `period()` creates or parses a period object with the specified values.
#'
#' Within a Period object, time units do not have a fixed length (except for
#' seconds) until they are added to a date-time. The length of each time unit
#' will depend on the date-time to which it is added. For example, a year that
#' begins on 2009-01-01 will be 365 days long.  A year that begins on 2012-01-01
#' will be 366 days long. When math is performed with a period object, each unit
#' is applied separately. How the length of a period is distributed among its
#' units is non-trivial. For example, when leap seconds occur 1 minute is longer
#' than 60 seconds.
#'
#' Periods track the change in the "clock time" between two date-times. They
#' are measured in common time related units: years, months, days, hours,
#' minutes, and seconds. Each unit except for seconds must be expressed in
#' integer values.
#'
#' Besides the main constructor and parser [period()], period objects can also
#' be created with the specialized functions [years()], [months()], [weeks()],
#' [days()], [hours()], [minutes()], and [seconds()]. These objects can be added
#' to and subtracted to date-times to create a user interface similar to object
#' oriented programming.
#'
#' Note: Arithmetic with periods can result in undefined behavior when
#' non-existent dates are involved (such as February 29th in non-leap years).
#' Please see [Period-class] for more details and \code{\link{\%m+\%}} and
#' [add_with_rollback()] for alternative operations.
#'
#' @name period
#' @aliases periods
#' @param num a numeric or character vector. A character vector can specify
#'   periods in a convenient shorthand format or ISO 8601 specification. All
#'   unambiguous name units and abbreviations are supported, "m" stands for
#'   months, "M" for minutes unless ISO 8601 "P" modifier is present (see
#'   examples). Fractional units are supported but the fractional part is always
#'   converted to seconds.
#' @param units a character vector that lists the type of units to be used. The
#'   units in units are matched to the values in num according to their
#'   order. When `num` is character, this argument is ignored.
#' @param ... a list of time units to be included in the period and their
#'   amounts. Seconds, minutes,  hours, days, weeks, months, and years are
#'   supported. Normally only one of `num` or `...` are present. If both are
#'   present, the periods are concatenated.
#' @param x Any R object for `is.periods` and a numeric value of the number of
#'   units for elementary constructors. With the exception of seconds(), x must
#'   be an integer.
#' @param abbreviate Ignored. For consistency with S3 generic in base namespace.
#' @seealso [Period-class], [period()], \code{\link{\%m+\%}},
#'   [add_with_rollback()]
#' @return a period object
#' @keywords chron classes
#' @examples
#'
#' ### Separate period and units vectors
#'
#' period(c(90, 5), c("second", "minute"))
#' #  "5M 90S"
#' period(-1, "days")
#' period(c(3, 1, 2, 13, 1), c("second", "minute", "hour", "day", "week"))
#' period(c(1, -60), c("hour", "minute"))
#' period(0, "second")
#'
#' ### Units as arguments
#'
#' period(second = 90, minute = 5)
#' period(day = -1)
#' period(second = 3, minute = 1, hour = 2, day = 13, week = 1)
#' period(hour = 1, minute = -60)
#' period(second = 0)
#' period(c(1, -60), c("hour", "minute"), hour = c(1, 2), minute = c(3, 4))
#'
#' ### Lubridate style parsing
#'
#' period("2M 1sec")
#' period("2hours 2minutes 1second")
#' period("2d 2H 2M 2S")
#' period("2days 2hours 2mins 2secs")
#' period("2 days, 2 hours, 2 mins, 2 secs")
#' # Missing numerals default to 1. Repeated units are added up.
#' duration("day day")
#'
#' ### ISO 8601 parsing
#'
#' period("P10M23DT23H") # M stands for months
#' period("10DT10M") # M stands for minutes
#' period("P3Y6M4DT12H30M5S") # M for both minutes and months
#' period("P23DT60H 20min 100 sec") # mixing ISO and lubridate style parsing
#'
#' ### Comparison with characters (from v1.6.0)
#'
#' duration("day 2 sec") > "day 1sec"
#'
#' ### Elementary Constructors
#'
#' x <- ymd("2009-08-03")
#' x + days(1) + hours(6) + minutes(30)
#' x + days(100) - hours(8)
#'
#' class(as.Date("2009-08-09") + days(1)) # retains Date class
#' as.Date("2009-08-09") + hours(12)
#' class(as.Date("2009-08-09") + hours(12))
#' # converts to POSIXt class to accomodate time units
#'
#' years(1) - months(7)
#' c(1:3) * hours(1)
#' hours(1:3)
#'
#' # sequencing
#' y <- ymd(090101) # "2009-01-01 CST"
#' y + months(0:11)
#'
#' # compare DST handling to durations
#' boundary <- ymd_hms("2009-03-08 01:59:59", tz = "America/Chicago")
#' boundary + days(1) # period
#' boundary + ddays(1) # duration
#' @export
period <- function(num = NULL, units = "second", ...) {
  if (is.character(num)) {
    parse_period(num)
  } else {
    out1 <- .period_from_num(num, units)
    out2 <- .period_from_units(list(...))
    if (is.null(out1) && is.null(out2)) {
      new("Period", numeric())
    } else if (is.null(out1)) {
      out2
    } else if (is.null(out2)) {
      out1
    } else {
      c(out1, out2)
    }
  }
}

parse_period <- function(x) {
  out <- .Call(C_parse_period, as.character(x))
  new("Period",
    out[1, ],
    minute = out[2, ],
    hour   = out[3, ],
    day    = out[4, ] + 7L * out[5, ],
    month  = out[6, ],
    year   = out[7, ]
  )
}

.period_from_num <- function(num, units) {
  if (length(num) == 0) {
    return(NULL)
  }

  if (!is.numeric(num)) {
    stop(sprintf("First argument to `period()` constructor must be character or numeric. Supplied object of class '%s'", class(num)))
  }

  ## qucik check for common wrongdoings: #462
  if (inherits(num, c("Interval", "Duration"))) {
    stop("Interval or Durations objects cannot be used as input to 'period()' constructor. Plese use 'as.period()'.")
  }

  if (length(units) %% length(num) != 0) {
    stop("Arguments `num` and `units` must have same length")
  }

  .period_from_units(structure(num, names = units))
}

.period_from_units <- function(pieces) {
  if (length(pieces) == 0) {
    return(NULL)
  }

  if (!is.numeric(pieces)) {
    pieces <- lapply(pieces, as.numeric)
  }

  out <- list(
    second = 0, minute = 0, hour = 0, day = 0,
    week = 0, month = 0, year = 0
  )

  unit <- standardise_date_names(names(pieces))
  for (i in seq_along(unit)) {
    nm <- unit[[i]]
    out[[nm]] <- out[[nm]] + pieces[[i]]
  }
  out$day <- out$day + 7 * out$week

  new("Period", out$second,
    year = out$year, month = out$month,
    day = out$day, hour = out$hour, minute = out$minute
  )
}

#' @rdname period
#' @examples
#' is.period(as.Date("2009-08-03")) # FALSE
#' is.period(period(months = 1, days = 15)) # TRUE
#' @export
is.period <- function(x) is(x, "Period")

#' @export seconds minutes hours days weeks years milliseconds microseconds microseconds nanoseconds picoseconds
#' @rdname period
seconds <- function(x = 1) period(second = x)
#' @rdname period
minutes <- function(x = 1) period(minute = x)
#' @rdname period
hours <- function(x = 1) period(hour = x)
#' @rdname period
days <- function(x = 1) period(day = x)
#' @rdname period
weeks <- function(x = 1) period(week = x)
#' @rdname period
years <- function(x = 1) period(year = x)
#' @rdname period
milliseconds <- function(x = 1) seconds(x / 1000)
#' @rdname period
microseconds <- function(x = 1) seconds(x / 1000000)
#' @rdname period
nanoseconds <- function(x = 1) seconds(x / 1e9)
#' @rdname period
picoseconds <- function(x = 1) seconds(x / 1e12)

#' @rdname period
#' @export
months.numeric <- function(x, abbreviate) {
  period(month = x)
}

#' Contrive a period to/from a given number of seconds
#'
#' `period_to_seconds()` approximately converts a period to seconds assuming
#' there are 365.25 days in a calendar year and 365.25/12 days in a month.
#'
#' @param x A numeric object. The number of seconds to coerce into a period.
#' @return A number (period) that roughly equates to the period (seconds) given.
#' @export
period_to_seconds <- function(x) {
  x@.Data +
    60 * x@minute +
    60 * 60 * x@hour +
    60 * 60 * 24 * x@day +
    60 * 60 * 24 * 365.25 / 12 * x@month +
    60 * 60 * 24 * 365.25 * x@year
}

#' @description
#' `seconds_to_period()` create a period that has the maximum number of
#' non-zero elements (days, hours, minutes, seconds). This computation is exact
#' because it doesn't involve years or months.
#' @rdname period_to_seconds
#' @export
seconds_to_period <- function(x) {
  span <- as.double(x)
  remainder <- abs(span)
  newper <- period(second = rep(0, length(x)))

  slot(newper, "day") <- remainder %/% (3600 * 24)
  remainder <- remainder %% (3600 * 24)

  slot(newper, "hour") <- remainder %/% (3600)
  remainder <- remainder %% (3600)

  slot(newper, "minute") <- remainder %/% (60)

  slot(newper, ".Data") <- remainder %% (60)

  newper * sign(span)
}

#' @export
summary.Period <- function(object, ...) {
  nas <- is.na(object)
  object <- object[!nas]
  persecs <- period_to_seconds(object)
  qq <- stats::quantile(persecs)
  qq <- c(qq[1L:3L], mean(persecs), qq[4L:5L])
  qq <- seconds_to_period(qq)
  qq <- as.character(qq)
  names(qq) <- c(
    "Min.", "1st Qu.", "Median", "Mean", "3rd Qu.",
    "Max."
  )
  if (any(nas)) {
    c(qq, `NA's` = sum(nas))
  } else {
    qq
  }
}

#' @export
setMethod("Arith", signature(e1 = "Period", e2 = "ANY"), function(e1, e2) {
  stop_incompatible_classes(e1, e2, .Generic)
})

#' @export
setMethod("Arith", signature(e1 = "ANY", e2 = "Period"), function(e1, e2) {
  stop_incompatible_classes(e1, e2, .Generic)
})

## duration is.numeric. So we need these explicits here:
#' @export
setMethod("Arith", signature(e1 = "Duration", e2 = "Period"), function(e1, e2) {
  stop_incompatible_classes(e1, e2, .Generic)
})

#' @export
setMethod("Arith", signature(e1 = "Period", e2 = "Duration"), function(e1, e2) {
  stop_incompatible_classes(e1, e2, .Generic)
})

#' @export
setMethod(
  "Compare", signature(e1 = "Period", e2 = "Period"),
  function(e1, e2) {
    callGeneric(period_to_seconds(e1), period_to_seconds(e2))
  }
)

#' @export
setMethod(
  "Compare", signature(e1 = "Period", e2 = "character"),
  function(e1, e2) {
    callGeneric(e1, as.period(e2))
  }
)

#' @export
setMethod(
  "Compare", signature(e1 = "character", e2 = "Period"),
  function(e1, e2) {
    callGeneric(as.period(e1), e2)
  }
)

#' @export
setMethod(
  "Compare", signature(e1 = "Period", e2 = "Duration"),
  function(e1, e2) {
    callGeneric(as.duration(e1), e2)
  }
)

#' @export
setMethod(
  "Compare", signature(e1 = "Duration", e2 = "Period"),
  function(e1, e2) {
    callGeneric(e1, as.duration(e2))
  }
)

#' @export
setMethod(
  "Compare", signature(e1 = "Period", e2 = "numeric"),
  function(e1, e2) {
    callGeneric(as.numeric(e1, "secs"), e2)
  }
)

#' @export
setMethod(
  "Compare", signature(e1 = "numeric", e2 = "Period"),
  function(e1, e2) {
    callGeneric(e1, as.numeric(e2, "secs"))
  }
)

#' @export
setMethod(
  "Compare", c(e1 = "Period", e2 = "difftime"),
  function(e1, e2) {
    callGeneric(as.numeric(e1, units = "secs"), as.numeric(e2, units = "secs"))
  }
)

#' @export
setMethod(
  "Compare", c(e1 = "difftime", e2 = "Period"),
  function(e1, e2) {
    callGeneric(as.numeric(e1, units = "secs"), as.numeric(e2, units = "secs"))
  }
)

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lubridate documentation built on Nov. 10, 2022, 5:44 p.m.