inst/shinyApp/scatter3d/scatterplot.R

# 3D scatterplots and point identification via rgl

# checked in 23 December 2009 by J. Fox
# 5 January 2010: fixed axis labeling in scatter3d.formula. J. Fox
# 13 May 2010: changed default id.n to conform to showLabels
# 30 July 2010: checks for rgl
# 23 October 2010: added surface.alpha and ellipsoid.alpha arguments
# 2012-03-02: fixed some argument abbreviations. J. Fox
# 2013-02-20: fixed error message, docs for surface.col argument. J. Fox
# 2013-08-20: changed rgl:::rgl.projection to rgl::rgl.projection; more such fixes to come. J. Fox
# 2013-08-31: rgl functions used now exported; got rid of ::: and ::. J. Fox
# 2014-08-04: changed name of identify3d() to Identify3d(). J. Fox
# 2014-08-17: added calls to requireNamespace and :: as needed. J. Fox
# 2014-09-04: J. Fox: empty groups produce warning rather than error

scatter3d <- function(x, ...){
  if (!requireNamespace("rgl")) stop("rgl package missing")
  UseMethod("scatter3d")
}

scatter3d.formula <- function(formula, data, subset, radius, xlab, ylab, zlab, labels, ...){
  na.save <- options(na.action=na.omit)
  on.exit(options(na.save))
  m <- match.call(expand.dots=FALSE)
  if (is.matrix(eval(m$data, sys.frame(sys.parent()))))
    m$data <- as.data.frame(data)
  m$na.action <- na.pass
  m$labels <- m$xlab <- m$ylab <- m$zlab <- m$... <- NULL
  m[[1]] <- as.name("model.frame")
  formula <- as.character(c(formula))
  formula <- as.formula(sub("\\|", "+", formula))
  m$formula <- formula
  X <- eval(m, parent.frame())
  if ("(radius)" %in% names(X)){
    radius <- X[, "(radius)"]
    X <- X[, names(X) != "(radius)"]
  }
  else radius <- 1
  names <- names(X)
  if (missing(xlab)) xlab <- names[2]
  if (missing(ylab)) ylab <- names[1]
  if (missing(zlab)) zlab <- names[3]
  if (missing(labels)) labels <- rownames(X)
  if (ncol(X) == 3)
    scatter3d(X[,2], X[,1], X[,3], xlab=xlab, ylab=ylab, zlab=zlab, labels=labels, radius=radius, ...)
  else if (ncol(X) == 4)
    scatter3d(X[,2], X[,1], X[,3], groups=X[,4], xlab=xlab, ylab=ylab, zlab=zlab, labels=labels, radius=radius, ...)
  else stop("incorrect scatter3d formula")
}

scatter3d.default <- function(x, y, z,
                              xlab=deparse(substitute(x)), ylab=deparse(substitute(y)),
                              zlab=deparse(substitute(z)), axis.scales=TRUE, revolutions=0, bg.col=c("white", "black"),
                              axis.col=if (bg.col == "white") c("darkmagenta", "black", "darkcyan")
                              else c("darkmagenta", "white", "darkcyan"),
                              surface.col=c("blue", "green", "orange", "magenta", "cyan", "red", "yellow", "gray"),
                              surface.alpha=0.5,
                              neg.res.col="red", pos.res.col="green",
                              square.col=if (bg.col == "white") "black" else "gray", point.col="yellow",
                              text.col=axis.col, grid.col=if (bg.col == "white") "black" else "gray",
                              fogtype=c("exp2", "linear", "exp", "none"),
                              residuals=(length(fit) == 1), surface=TRUE, fill=TRUE, grid=TRUE, grid.lines=26,
                              df.smooth=NULL, df.additive=NULL,
                              sphere.size=1, radius=1, threshold=0.01, speed=1, fov=60,
                              fit="linear", groups=NULL, parallel=TRUE, ellipsoid=FALSE, level=0.5, ellipsoid.alpha=0.1,
                              id.method=c("mahal", "xz", "y", "xyz", "identify", "none"),
                              id.n=if (id.method == "identify") Inf else 0,
                              labels=as.character(seq(along=x)), offset = ((100/length(x))^(1/3)) * 0.02,
                              model.summary=FALSE, ...){
  if (!requireNamespace("rgl")) stop("rgl package missing")
  if (!requireNamespace("mgcv")) stop("mgcv package missing")
  id.method <- match.arg(id.method)
  if (residuals == "squares"){
    residuals <- TRUE
    squares <- TRUE
  }
  else squares <- FALSE
  summaries <- list()
  if ((!is.null(groups)) && (nlevels(groups) > length(surface.col)))
    stop(sprintf("Number of groups (%d) exceeds number of colors (%d)",
                 nlevels(groups), length(surface.col)))
  if ((!is.null(groups)) && (!is.factor(groups))) stop("groups variable must be a factor")
  counts <- table(groups)
  if (any(counts == 0)){
    levels <- levels(groups)
    warning("the following groups are empty: ", paste(levels[counts == 0], collapse=", "))
    groups <- factor(groups, levels=levels[counts != 0])
  }
  bg.col <- match.arg(bg.col)
  fogtype <- match.arg(fogtype)
  if ((length(fit) > 1) && residuals && surface)
    stop("cannot plot both multiple surfaces and residuals")
  xlab  # cause these arguments to be evaluated
  ylab
  zlab
  rgl::rgl.clear()
  rgl::rgl.viewpoint(fov=fov)
  rgl::rgl.bg(color=bg.col, fogtype=fogtype)
  if (id.method == "identify"){
    xg <- x
    yg <- y
    zg <- z
    ggroups <- groups
    glabels <- labels
  }
  valid <- if (is.null(groups)) complete.cases(x, y, z)
  else complete.cases(x, y, z, groups)
  x <- x[valid]
  y <- y[valid]
  z <- z[valid]
  labels <- labels[valid]
  minx <- min(x)
  maxx <- max(x)
  miny <- min(y)
  maxy <- max(y)
  minz <- min(z)
  maxz <- max(z)
  if (axis.scales){
    lab.min.x <- minx
    lab.max.x <- maxx
    lab.min.y <- miny
    lab.max.y <- maxy
    lab.min.z <- minz
    lab.max.z <- maxz
    minx <- min(lab.min.x, minx)
    maxx <- max(lab.max.x, maxx)
    miny <- min(lab.min.y, miny)
    maxy <- max(lab.max.y, maxy)
    minz <- min(lab.min.z, minz)
    maxz <- max(lab.max.z, maxz)
    min.x <- (lab.min.x - minx)/(maxx - minx)
    max.x <- (lab.max.x - minx)/(maxx - minx)
    min.y <- (lab.min.y - miny)/(maxy - miny)
    max.y <- (lab.max.y - miny)/(maxy - miny)
    min.z <- (lab.min.z - minz)/(maxz - minz)
    max.z <- (lab.max.z - minz)/(maxz - minz)
  }
  if (!is.null(groups)) groups <- groups[valid]
  x <- (x - minx)/(maxx - minx)
  y <- (y - miny)/(maxy - miny)
  z <- (z - minz)/(maxz - minz)
  size <- sphere.size*((100/length(x))^(1/3))*0.015
  radius <- radius/median(radius)
  if (is.null(groups)){
    if (size > threshold) rgl::rgl.spheres(x, y, z, color=point.col, radius=size*radius)
    else rgl::rgl.points(x, y, z, color=point.col)
  }
  else {
    if (size > threshold) rgl::rgl.spheres(x, y, z, color=surface.col[as.numeric(groups)], radius=size*radius)
    else rgl::rgl.points(x, y, z, color=surface.col[as.numeric(groups)])
  }
  if (!axis.scales) axis.col[1] <- axis.col[3] <- axis.col[2]
  rgl::rgl.lines(c(0,1), c(0,0), c(0,0), color=axis.col[1])
  rgl::rgl.lines(c(0,0), c(0,1), c(0,0), color=axis.col[2])
  rgl::rgl.lines(c(0,0), c(0,0), c(0,1), color=axis.col[3])
  rgl::rgl.texts(1, 0, 0, xlab, adj=1, color=axis.col[1])
  rgl::rgl.texts(0, 1.05, 0, ylab, adj=1, color=axis.col[2])
  rgl::rgl.texts(0, 0, 1, zlab, adj=1, color=axis.col[3])
  if (axis.scales){
    rgl::rgl.texts(min.x, -0.05, 0, lab.min.x, col=axis.col[1])
    rgl::rgl.texts(max.x, -0.05, 0, lab.max.x, col=axis.col[1])
    rgl::rgl.texts(0, -0.1, min.z, lab.min.z, col=axis.col[3])
    rgl::rgl.texts(0, -0.1, max.z, lab.max.z, col=axis.col[3])
    rgl::rgl.texts(-0.05, min.y, -0.05, lab.min.y, col=axis.col[2])
    rgl::rgl.texts(-0.05, max.y, -0.05, lab.max.y, col=axis.col[2])
  }
  if (ellipsoid) {
    dfn <- 3
    if (is.null(groups)){
      dfd <- length(x) - 1
      ell.radius <- sqrt(dfn * qf(level, dfn, dfd))
      ellips <- ellipsoid(center=c(mean(x), mean(y), mean(z)),
                          shape=cov(cbind(x,y,z)), radius=ell.radius)
      if (fill) rgl::shade3d(ellips, col=surface.col[1], alpha=0.1, lit=FALSE)
      if (grid) rgl::wire3d(ellips, col=surface.col[1], lit=FALSE,alpha=0.1)
    }
    else{
      levs <- levels(groups)
      for (j in 1:length(levs)){
        group <- levs[j]
        select.obs <- groups == group
        xx <- x[select.obs]
        yy <- y[select.obs]
        zz <- z[select.obs]
        dfd <- length(xx) - 1
        ell.radius <- sqrt(dfn * qf(level, dfn, dfd))
        ellips <- ellipsoid(center=c(mean(xx), mean(yy), mean(zz)),
                            shape=cov(cbind(xx,yy,zz)), radius=ell.radius)
        if (fill) rgl::shade3d(ellips, col=surface.col[j], alpha=0.1, lit=FALSE)
        if (grid) rgl::wire3d(ellips, col=surface.col[j], lit=FALSE,alpha=0.1)
        coords <- ellips$vb[, which.max(ellips$vb[1,])]
        if (!surface) rgl::rgl.texts(coords[1] + 0.05, coords[2], coords[3], group,
                                     col=surface.col[j])
      }
    }
  }
  if (surface){
    vals <- seq(0, 1, length.out=grid.lines)
    dat <- expand.grid(x=vals, z=vals)
    for (i in 1:length(fit)){
      f <- match.arg(fit[i], c("linear", "quadratic", "smooth", "additive"))
      if (is.null(groups)){
        mod <- switch(f,
                      linear = lm(y ~ x + z),
                      quadratic = lm(y ~ (x + z)^2 + I(x^2) + I(z^2)),
                      smooth = if (is.null(df.smooth)) mgcv::gam(y ~ s(x, z))
                      else mgcv::gam(y ~ s(x, z, fx=TRUE, k=df.smooth)),
                      additive = if (is.null(df.additive)) mgcv::gam(y ~ s(x) + s(z))
                      else mgcv::gam(y ~ s(x, fx=TRUE, k=df.additive[1]+1) +
                                       s(z, fx=TRUE, k=(rev(df.additive+1)[1]+1)))
        )
        if (model.summary) summaries[[f]] <- summary(mod)
        yhat <- matrix(predict(mod, newdata=dat), grid.lines, grid.lines)
        if (fill) rgl::rgl.surface(vals, vals, yhat, color=surface.col[i], alpha=surface.alpha, lit=FALSE)
        if(grid) rgl::rgl.surface(vals, vals, yhat, color=if (fill) grid.col
                                  else surface.col[i], alpha=surface.alpha, lit=FALSE, front="lines", back="lines")
        if (residuals){
          n <- length(y)
          fitted <- fitted(mod)
          colors <- ifelse(residuals(mod) > 0, pos.res.col, neg.res.col)
          rgl::rgl.lines(as.vector(rbind(x,x)), as.vector(rbind(y,fitted)), as.vector(rbind(z,z)),
                         color=as.vector(rbind(colors,colors)))
          if (squares){
            res <- y - fitted
            xx <- as.vector(rbind(x, x, x + res, x + res))
            yy <- as.vector(rbind(y, fitted, fitted, y))
            zz <- as.vector(rbind(z, z, z, z))
            rgl::rgl.quads(xx, yy, zz, color=square.col, alpha=surface.alpha, lit=FALSE)
            rgl::rgl.lines(xx, yy, zz, color=square.col)
          }
        }
      }
      else{
        if (parallel){
          mod <- switch(f,
                        linear = lm(y ~ x + z + groups),
                        quadratic = lm(y ~ (x + z)^2 + I(x^2) + I(z^2) + groups),
                        smooth = if (is.null(df.smooth)) mgcv::gam(y ~ s(x, z) + groups)
                        else mgcv::gam(y ~ s(x, z, fx=TRUE, k=df.smooth) + groups),
                        additive = if (is.null(df.additive)) mgcv::gam(y ~ s(x) + s(z) + groups)
                        else mgcv::gam(y ~ s(x, fx=TRUE, k=df.additive[1]+1) +
                                         s(z, fx=TRUE, k=(rev(df.additive+1)[1]+1)) + groups)
          )
          if (model.summary) summaries[[f]] <- summary(mod)
          levs <- levels(groups)
          for (j in 1:length(levs)){
            group <- levs[j]
            select.obs <- groups == group
            yhat <- matrix(predict(mod, newdata=cbind(dat, groups=group)), grid.lines, grid.lines)
            if (fill) rgl::rgl.surface(vals, vals, yhat, color=surface.col[j], alpha=surface.alpha, lit=FALSE)
            if (grid) rgl::rgl.surface(vals, vals, yhat, color=if (fill) grid.col
                                       else surface.col[j], alpha=surface.alpha, lit=FALSE, front="lines", back="lines")
            rgl::rgl.texts(1, predict(mod, newdata=data.frame(x=1, z=1, groups=group)), 1,
                           paste(group, " "), adj=1, color=surface.col[j])
            if (residuals){
              yy <- y[select.obs]
              xx <- x[select.obs]
              zz <- z[select.obs]
              fitted <- fitted(mod)[select.obs]
              res <- yy - fitted
              rgl::rgl.lines(as.vector(rbind(xx,xx)), as.vector(rbind(yy,fitted)), as.vector(rbind(zz,zz)),
                             col=surface.col[j])
              if (squares) {
                xxx <- as.vector(rbind(xx, xx, xx + res, xx + res))
                yyy <- as.vector(rbind(yy, fitted, fitted, yy))
                zzz <- as.vector(rbind(zz, zz, zz, zz))
                rgl::rgl.quads(xxx, yyy, zzz, color=surface.col[j], alpha=surface.alpha, lit=FALSE)
                rgl::rgl.lines(xxx, yyy, zzz, color=surface.col[j])
              }
            }
          }
        }
        else {
          levs <- levels(groups)
          for (j in 1:length(levs)){
            group <- levs[j]
            select.obs <- groups == group
            mod <- switch(f,
                          linear = lm(y ~ x + z, subset=select.obs),
                          quadratic = lm(y ~ (x + z)^2 + I(x^2) + I(z^2), subset=select.obs),
                          smooth = if (is.null(df.smooth)) mgcv::gam(y ~ s(x, z), subset=select.obs)
                          else mgcv::gam(y ~ s(x, z, fx=TRUE, k=df.smooth), subset=select.obs),
                          additive = if (is.null(df.additive)) mgcv::gam(y ~ s(x) + s(z), subset=select.obs)
                          else mgcv::gam(y ~ s(x, fx=TRUE, k=df.additive[1]+1) +
                                           s(z, fx=TRUE, k=(rev(df.additive+1)[1]+1)), subset=select.obs)
            )
            if (model.summary) summaries[[paste(f, ".", group, sep="")]] <- summary(mod)
            yhat <- matrix(predict(mod, newdata=dat), grid.lines, grid.lines)
            if (fill) rgl::rgl.surface(vals, vals, yhat, color=surface.col[j], alpha=surface.alpha, lit=FALSE)
            if (grid) rgl::rgl.surface(vals, vals, yhat, color=if (fill) grid.col
                                       else surface.col[j], alpha=surface.alpha, lit=FALSE, front="lines", back="lines")
            rgl::rgl.texts(1, predict(mod, newdata=data.frame(x=1, z=1, groups=group)), 1,
                           paste(group, " "), adj=1, color=surface.col[j])
            if (residuals){
              yy <- y[select.obs]
              xx <- x[select.obs]
              zz <- z[select.obs]
              fitted <- fitted(mod)
              res <- yy - fitted
              rgl::rgl.lines(as.vector(rbind(xx,xx)), as.vector(rbind(yy,fitted)), as.vector(rbind(zz,zz)),
                             col=surface.col[j])
              if (squares) {
                xxx <- as.vector(rbind(xx, xx, xx + res, xx + res))
                yyy <- as.vector(rbind(yy, fitted, fitted, yy))
                zzz <- as.vector(rbind(zz, zz, zz, zz))
                rgl::rgl.quads(xxx, yyy, zzz, color=surface.col[j], alpha=surface.alpha, lit=FALSE)
                rgl::rgl.lines(xxx, yyy, zzz, color=surface.col[j])
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
  else levs <- levels(groups)
  if (id.method == "identify"){
    Identify3d(xg, yg, zg, axis.scales=axis.scales, groups=ggroups, labels=glabels,
               col=surface.col, offset=offset)
  }
  else if (id.method != "none"){
    if (is.null(groups))
      showLabels3d(x, y, z, labels, id.method=id.method, id.n=id.n, col=surface.col[1])
    else {
      for (j in 1:length(levs)){
        group <- levs[j]
        select.obs <- groups == group
        showLabels3d(x[select.obs], y[select.obs], z[select.obs], labels[select.obs],
                     id.method=id.method, id.n=id.n, col=surface.col[j])
      }
    }
  }
  if (revolutions > 0) {
    for (i in 1:revolutions){
      for (angle in seq(1, 360, length.out=360/speed)) rgl::rgl.viewpoint(-angle, fov=fov)
    }
  }
  if (model.summary) return(summaries) else return(invisible(NULL))
}

# the following function is a slight modification of rgl.select3d() in the rgl package,
#   altered to pass through arguments (via ...) to rgl.select()

car.select3d <- function (...) {
  if (!requireNamespace("rgl")) stop("rgl package is missing")
  rgl::.check3d()
  rect <- rgl::rgl.select(...)
  llx <- rect[1]
  lly <- rect[2]
  urx <- rect[3]
  ury <- rect[4]
  if (llx > urx) {
    temp <- llx
    llx <- urx
    urx <- temp
  }
  if (lly > ury) {
    temp <- lly
    lly <- ury
    ury <- temp
  }
  proj <- rgl::rgl.projection()
  function(x, y, z) {
    pixel <- rgl::rgl.user2window(x, y, z, projection = proj)
    apply(pixel, 1, function(p) (llx <= p[1]) && (p[1] <=
                                                    urx) && (lly <= p[2]) && (p[2] <= ury) && (0 <= p[3]) &&
            (p[3] <= 1))
  }
}

Identify3d  <- function (x, y, z, axis.scales=TRUE, groups = NULL, labels = 1:length(x),
                         col = c("blue", "green", "orange", "magenta", "cyan", "red", "yellow", "gray"),
                         offset = ((100/length(x))^(1/3)) * 0.02){
  if (!requireNamespace("rgl")) stop("rgl package is missing")
  if (!is.null(groups)){
    counts <- table(groups)
    if (any(counts == 0)){
      levels <- levels(groups)
      warning("the following groups are empty: ", paste(levels[counts == 0], collapse=", "))
      groups <- factor(groups, levels=levels[counts != 0])
    }
  }
  valid <- if (is.null(groups))
    complete.cases(x, y, z)
  else complete.cases(x, y, z, groups)
  labels <- labels[valid]
  x <- x[valid]
  y <- y[valid]
  z <- z[valid]
  groups <- groups[valid]
  minx <- min(x)
  maxx <- max(x)
  miny <- min(y)
  maxy <- max(y)
  minz <- min(z)
  maxz <- max(z)
  if (axis.scales){
    lab.min.x <- minx
    lab.max.x <- maxx
    lab.min.y <- miny
    lab.max.y <- maxy
    lab.min.z <- minz
    lab.max.z <- maxz
    minx <- min(lab.min.x, minx)
    maxx <- max(lab.max.x, maxx)
    miny <- min(lab.min.y, miny)
    maxy <- max(lab.max.y, maxy)
    minz <- min(lab.min.z, minz)
    maxz <- max(lab.max.z, maxz)
    min.x <- (lab.min.x - minx)/(maxx - minx)
    max.x <- (lab.max.x - minx)/(maxx - minx)
    min.y <- (lab.min.y - miny)/(maxy - miny)
    max.y <- (lab.max.y - miny)/(maxy - miny)
    min.z <- (lab.min.z - minz)/(maxz - minz)
    max.z <- (lab.max.z - minz)/(maxz - minz)
  }
  x <- (x - minx)/(maxx - minx)
  y <- (y - miny)/(maxy - miny)
  z <- (z - minz)/(maxz - minz)
  rgl::rgl.bringtotop()
  identified <- character(0)
  groups <- if (!is.null(groups))
    as.numeric(groups[valid])
  else rep(1, length(x))
  repeat {
    f <- car.select3d(button="right")
    which <- f(x, y, z)
    if (!any(which))
      break
    rgl::rgl.texts(x[which], y[which] + offset, z[which], labels[which],
                   color = col[groups][which])
    identified <- c(identified, labels[which])
  }
  unique(identified)
}

showLabels3d <- function(x, y, z, labels,
                         id.method = "identify", id.n=length(x), col=c("blue"),
                         res=y - mean(y), range.x=range(x), range.z=range(z),
                         offset = ((100/length(x))^(1/3)) * 0.02) {
  if (!requireNamespace("rgl")) stop("rgl package is missing")
  if (id.method == "none") return(NULL)
  if(id.n > 0L) {
    if (missing(labels))
      labels <- as.character(seq(along=x))
    getPoints <- function(w) {
      names(w) <- labels
      iid <- seq(length=id.n)
      ws <- w[order(-w)[iid]]
      match(names(ws), labels)
    }
    ind <-  switch(id.method,
                   xz = getPoints(rowSums(qr.Q(qr(cbind(1, x, z))) ^ 2)),
                   y = getPoints(abs(res)),
                   xyz = union(getPoints(abs(x - mean(x))), union(abs(z - mean(z)),
                                                                  getPoints(abs(res)))),
                   mahal= getPoints(rowSums(qr.Q(qr(cbind(1, x, y, z))) ^ 2)))
    rgl::rgl.texts(x[ind], y[ind] + offset, z[ind], labels[ind],
                   color = col)
    return(labels[ind])
  }
}

ellipsoid <- function(center=c(0, 0, 0), radius=1, shape=diag(3), n=30){
  if (!requireNamespace("rgl")) "rgl package is missing"
  # adapted from the shapes3d demo in the rgl package
  degvec <- seq(0, 2*pi, length.out=n)
  ecoord2 <- function(p) c(cos(p[1])*sin(p[2]), sin(p[1])*sin(p[2]), cos(p[2]))
  v <- t(apply(expand.grid(degvec,degvec), 1, ecoord2))
  v <- center + radius * t(v %*% chol(shape))
  v <- rbind(v, rep(1,ncol(v)))
  e <- expand.grid(1:(n-1), 1:n)
  i1 <- apply(e, 1, function(z) z[1] + n*(z[2] - 1))
  i2 <- i1 + 1
  i3 <- (i1 + n - 1) %% n^2 + 1
  i4 <- (i2 + n - 1) %% n^2 + 1
  i <- rbind(i1, i2, i4, i3)
  rgl::qmesh3d(v, i)
}
luismurao/nichetoolbox documentation built on May 21, 2017, 3:42 p.m.