<center>Tutorial for Introductory Analysis of

knitr::opts_chunk$set(echo = TRUE)


Installing the latest stable version (from CRAN):


\noindent Alternatively, you can also try the under-development version (from Github):

if (!require(devtools)) install.packages("devtools")

Setting up the environment

x <- window(SanMartinoPPts, start=as.Date("1985-01-01"))
( m <- daily2monthly(x, FUN=sum) )
dates <- time(x)
( nyears <- yip(from=start(x), to=end(x), out.type="nmbr" ) )

Basic exploratory data analysis (EDA)

1) Summary statistics

hydroplot(x, var.type="Precipitation", main="at San Martino", 
          pfreq = "dm", from="1987-01-01")

2) Amount of days with information (not \texttt{NA}) per year


3) Amount of days with information (not \texttt{NA}) per month per year

dwi(x, out.unit="mpy")

4) Plotting the monthly precipitation values for each year, useful for identifying dry/wet months.

# Daily zoo to monthly zoo
m <- daily2monthly(x, FUN=sum, na.rm=TRUE)

# Creating a matrix with monthly values per year in each column
M <- matrix(m, ncol=12, byrow=TRUE)
colnames(M) <- month.abb
rownames(M) <- unique(format(time(m), "%Y"))

# Plotting the monthly precipitation values
print(matrixplot(M, ColorRamp="Precipitation", 
           main="Monthly precipitation at San Martino st., [mm/month]"))

Annual analysis

Annual values of precipitation

daily2annual(x, FUN=sum, na.rm=TRUE)

Average annual precipitation

Obvious way:

mean( daily2annual(x, FUN=sum, na.rm=TRUE) )

Another way (more useful for streamflows, where FUN=mean):

The function annualfunction applies FUN twice over x:

( i) firstly, over all the elements of x belonging to the same year, in order to obtain the corresponding annual values, and (ii) secondly, over all the annual values of x previously obtained, in order to obtain a single annual value.

annualfunction(x, FUN=sum, na.rm=TRUE) / nyears

Monthly analysis

Median of the monthly values at station 'x'. Not needed, just for looking at these values in the boxplot.

monthlyfunction(m, FUN=median, na.rm=TRUE)

Vector with the three-letter abbreviations for the month names

cmonth <- format(time(m), "%b")

Creating ordered monthly factors

months <- factor(cmonth, levels=unique(cmonth), ordered=TRUE)

Boxplot of the monthly values

boxplot( coredata(m) ~ months, col="lightblue", main="Monthly Precipitation", 
         ylab="Precipitation, [mm]", xlab="Month")

Seasonal analysis

Average seasonal values of precipitation

seasonalfunction(x, FUN=sum, na.rm=TRUE) / nyears

Extracting the seasonal values for each year

( DJF <- dm2seasonal(x, season="DJF", FUN=sum) )
( MAM <- dm2seasonal(m, season="MAM", FUN=sum) )
( JJA <- dm2seasonal(m, season="JJA", FUN=sum) )
( SON <- dm2seasonal(m, season="SON", FUN=sum) )

Plotting the time evolution of the seasonal precipitation values

hydroplot(x, pfreq="seasonal", FUN=sum, stype="default")

Some extreme indices

Common steps for the analysis of this section:

Loading daily precipitation data at the station San Martino di Castrozza, Trento Province, Italy, with data from 01/Jan/1921 to 31/Dec/1990.


Selecting only a three-year time slice for the analysis

x <- window(SanMartinoPPts, start=as.Date("1988-01-01"))

Plotting the selected time series

hydroplot(x,  ptype="ts", pfreq="o", var.unit="mm")

Heavy precipitation days (R10mm)

Counting and plotting the number of days in the period where precipitation is > 10 [mm]

( R10mm <- length( x[x>10] ) )

Very wet days (R95p)

wet.index <- which(x >= 1)
( PRwn95 <- quantile(x[wet.index], probs=0.95, na.rm=TRUE) )

Note 1: this computation was carried out for the three-year time period 1988-1990, not the 30-year period 1961-1990 commonly used.

Note 2: missing values are removed from the computation.

(very.wet.index <- which(x >= PRwn95))
( R95p <- sum(x[very.wet.index]) )

Note 3: this computation was carried out for the three-year time period 1988-1990, not the 30-year period 1961-1990 commonly used

5-day total precipitation

Computing the 5-day total (accumulated) precipitation \newline

x.5max <- rollapply(data=x, width=5, FUN=sum, fill=NA, partial= TRUE, 

hydroplot(x.5max,  ptype="ts+boxplot", pfreq="o", var.unit="mm")

Maximum annual value of 5-day total precipitation

(x.5max.annual <- daily2annual(x.5max, FUN=max, na.rm=TRUE))

Note 1: for this computation, a moving window centred in the current day is used. If the user wants the 5-day total precipitation accumulated in the 4 days before the current day + the precipitation in the current day, the user have to modify the moving window.\newline

Note 2: For the first two and last two values, the width of the window is adapted to ignore values not within the time series


Since v0.5-0, hydroTSM includes a function to plot a climograph, considering not only precipitation but air temperature data as well:

# Loading daily ts of precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature

# extracting individual ts of precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature
pcp <- MaquehueTemuco[, 1]
tmx <- MaquehueTemuco[, 2]
tmn <- MaquehueTemuco[, 3]

# Plotting the climograph
m <- climograph(pcp=pcp, tmx=tmx, tmn=tmn, na.rm=TRUE)

Software Details

This tutorial was built under:

paste("hydroTSM", sessionInfo()$otherPkgs$hydroTSM$Version)

Version history


In order to make easier the use of \texttt{hydroTSM} for users not familiar with R, in this section a minimal set of information is provided to guide the user in the R world.

Editors, GUI

Importing data

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hydroTSM documentation built on March 13, 2020, 2:23 a.m.