Description Usage Arguments Details Author(s) References See Also Examples
Print method for objects of class meta
.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37  ## S3 method for class 'meta'
print(
x,
sortvar,
comb.fixed = x$comb.fixed,
comb.random = x$comb.random,
prediction = x$prediction,
details = FALSE,
ma = TRUE,
overall = x$overall,
overall.hetstat = x$overall.hetstat,
backtransf = x$backtransf,
pscale = x$pscale,
irscale = x$irscale,
irunit = x$irunit,
digits = gs("digits"),
digits.se = gs("digits.se"),
digits.pval = max(gs("digits.pval"), 2),
digits.tau2 = gs("digits.tau2"),
digits.tau = gs("digits.tau"),
digits.I2 = gs("digits.I2"),
digits.prop = gs("digits.prop"),
digits.weight = gs("digits.weight"),
scientific.pval = gs("scientific.pval"),
zero.pval = gs("zero.pval"),
JAMA.pval = gs("JAMA.pval"),
big.mark = gs("big.mark"),
text.tau2 = gs("text.tau2"),
text.tau = gs("text.tau"),
text.I2 = gs("text.I2"),
truncate,
text.truncate = "*** Output truncated ***",
warn.backtransf = FALSE,
...
)
cilayout(bracket = "[", separator = "; ")

x 
An object of class 
sortvar 
An optional vector used to sort the individual
studies (must be of same length as 
comb.fixed 
A logical indicating whether a fixed effect metaanalysis should be conducted. 
comb.random 
A logical indicating whether a random effects metaanalysis should be conducted. 
prediction 
A logical indicating whether a prediction interval should be printed. 
details 
A logical indicating whether further details of individual studies should be printed. 
ma 
A logical indicating whether the summary results of the metaanalysis should be printed. 
overall 
A logical indicating whether overall summaries should be reported. This argument is useful in a metaanalysis with subgroups if overall results should not be reported. 
overall.hetstat 
A logical value indicating whether to print heterogeneity measures for overall treatment comparisons. This argument is useful in a metaanalysis with subgroups if heterogeneity statistics should only be printed on subgroup level. 
backtransf 
A logical indicating whether printed results
should be back transformed. If 
pscale 
A numeric giving scaling factor for printing of
single event probabilities or risk differences, i.e. if argument

irscale 
A numeric defining a scaling factor for printing of
single incidence rates or incidence rate differences, i.e. if
argument 
irunit 
A character specifying the time unit used to calculate rates, e.g. personyears. 
digits 
Minimal number of significant digits, see

digits.se 
Minimal number of significant digits for standard
deviations and standard errors, see 
digits.pval 
Minimal number of significant digits for pvalue
of test of treatment effect, see 
digits.tau2 
Minimal number of significant digits for
betweenstudy variance, see 
digits.tau 
Minimal number of significant digits for square
root of betweenstudy variance, see 
digits.I2 
Minimal number of significant digits for Isquared
and Rb statistic, see 
digits.prop 
Minimal number of significant digits for
proportions, see 
digits.weight 
Minimal number of significant digits for
weights, see 
scientific.pval 
A logical specifying whether pvalues should be printed in scientific notation, e.g., 1.2345e01 instead of 0.12345. 
zero.pval 
A logical specifying whether pvalues should be printed with a leading zero. 
JAMA.pval 
A logical specifying whether pvalues for test of overall effect should be printed according to JAMA reporting standards. 
big.mark 
A character used as thousands separator. 
text.tau2 
Text printed to identify betweenstudy variance τ^2. 
text.tau 
Text printed to identify τ, the square root of the betweenstudy variance τ^2. 
text.I2 
Text printed to identify heterogeneity statistic I^2. 
truncate 
An optional vector used to truncate the printout of
results for individual studies (must be a logical vector of same
length as 
text.truncate 
A character string printed if study results were truncated from the printout. 
warn.backtransf 
A logical indicating whether a warning should be printed if backtransformed proportions and rates are below 0 and backtransformed proportions are above 1. 
... 
Additional arguments (passed on to

bracket 
A character with bracket symbol to print lower confidence interval: "[", "(", "{", "". 
separator 
A character string with information on separator between lower and upper confidence interval. 
R function cilayout can be utilised to change the layout to print
confidence intervals (both in printout from print.meta and
print.summary.meta function as well as in forest plots). The
default layout is "[lower; upper]". Another popular layout is
"(lower  upper)" which is used throughout an R session by using R
command cilayout("(", "  ")
.
Argument pscale
can be used to rescale single proportions or
risk differences, e.g. pscale = 1000
means that proportions
are expressed as events per 1000 observations. This is useful in
situations with (very) low event probabilities.
Argument irscale
can be used to rescale single rates or rate
differences, e.g. irscale = 1000
means that rates are
expressed as events per 1000 time units, e.g. personyears. This is
useful in situations with (very) low rates. Argument irunit
can be used to specify the time unit used in individual studies
(default: "personyears"). This information is printed in summaries
and forest plots if argument irscale
is not equal to 1.
Guido Schwarzer sc@imbi.unifreiburg.de
Cooper H & Hedges LV (1994), The Handbook of Research Synthesis. Newbury Park, CA: Russell Sage Foundation.
Crippa A, Khudyakov P, Wang M, Orsini N, Spiegelman D (2016), A new measure of betweenstudies heterogeneity in metaanalysis. Statistics in Medicine, 35, 3661–75.
Higgins JPT & Thompson SG (2002), Quantifying heterogeneity in a metaanalysis. Statistics in Medicine, 21, 1539–58.
summary.meta
, update.meta
,
metabin
, metacont
,
metagen
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14  data(Fleiss1993cont)
m1 < metacont(n.psyc, mean.psyc, sd.psyc, n.cont, mean.cont, sd.cont,
data = Fleiss1993cont, sm = "SMD",
studlab = paste(study, year))
m1
print(m1, digits = 2)
## Not run:
# Use unicode characters to print tau^2, tau, and I^2
print(m1,
text.tau2 = "\u03c4\u00b2", text.tau = "\u03c4", text.I2 = "I\u00b2")
## End(Not run)

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