update.meta  R Documentation 
Update an existing metaanalysis object.
## S3 method for class 'meta'
update(
object,
data = object$data,
subset,
studlab,
exclude,
cluster,
rho = object$rho,
method,
sm = object$sm,
incr,
method.incr = object$method.incr,
allstudies = object$allstudies,
MH.exact = object$MH.exact,
RR.Cochrane = object$RR.Cochrane,
Q.Cochrane = object$Q.Cochrane,
model.glmm = object$model.glmm,
level = object$level,
level.ma = object$level.ma,
common = object$common,
random = object$random,
overall = object$overall,
overall.hetstat = object$overall.hetstat,
method.random.ci = object$method.random.ci,
adhoc.hakn.ci = object$adhoc.hakn.ci,
method.predict = object$method.predict,
adhoc.hakn.pi = object$adhoc.hakn.pi,
seed.predict = object$seed.predict,
method.tau = object$method.tau,
method.tau.ci = object$method.tau.ci,
tau.preset = object$tau.preset,
TE.tau = object$TE.tau,
tau.common = object$tau.common,
prediction = object$prediction,
level.predict = object$level.predict,
null.effect = object$null.effect,
method.bias = object$method.bias,
backtransf = object$backtransf,
pscale = object$pscale,
irscale = object$irscale,
irunit = object$irunit,
text.common = object$text.common,
text.random = object$text.random,
text.predict = object$text.predict,
text.w.common = object$text.w.common,
text.w.random = object$text.w.random,
title = object$title,
complab = object$complab,
outclab = object$outclab,
label.e = object$label.e,
label.c = object$label.c,
label.left = object$label.left,
label.right = object$label.right,
n.e = object$n.e,
n.c = object$n.c,
method.mean = object$method.mean,
method.sd = object$method.sd,
approx.mean.e = object$approx.mean.e,
approx.mean.c = object$approx.mean.c,
approx.sd.e = object$approx.sd.e,
approx.sd.c = object$approx.sd.c,
approx.mean = object$approx.mean,
approx.sd = object$approx.sd,
approx.TE = object$approx.TE,
approx.seTE = object$approx.seTE,
pooledvar = object$pooledvar,
method.smd = object$method.smd,
sd.glass = object$sd.glass,
exact.smd = object$exact.smd,
method.ci = object$method.ci,
subgroup,
subgroup.name = object$subgroup.name,
print.subgroup.name = object$print.subgroup.name,
sep.subgroup = object$sep.subgroup,
test.subgroup = object$test.subgroup,
prediction.subgroup = object$prediction.subgroup,
seed.predict.subgroup = object$seed.predict.subgroup,
byvar,
id,
print.CMH = object$print.CMH,
keepdata = TRUE,
left = object$left,
ma.common = object$ma.common,
type = object$type,
n.iter.max = object$n.iter.max,
warn = FALSE,
warn.deprecated = gs("warn.deprecated"),
verbose = FALSE,
control = object$control,
...
)
object 
An object of class 
data 
Dataset. 
subset 
Subset. 
studlab 
Study label. 
exclude 
An optional vector specifying studies to exclude from metaanalysis, however, to include in printouts and forest plots. 
cluster 
An optional vector specifying which estimates come from the same cluster resulting in the use of a threelevel metaanalysis model. 
rho 
Assumed correlation of estimates within a cluster. 
method 
A character string indicating which method is to be
used for pooling of studies (see 
sm 
A character string indicating which summary measure is used for pooling. 
incr 
Information on increment added to cell frequencies of
studies with zero cell counts (see 
method.incr 
A character string indicating which continuity
correction method should be used (see 
allstudies 
A logical indicating if studies with zero or all
events in both groups are to be included in the metaanalysis
(applies only to 
MH.exact 
A logical indicating if 
RR.Cochrane 
A logical indicating which method to use as
continuity correction for the risk ratio (see

Q.Cochrane 
A logical indicating which method to use to
calculate the heterogeneity statistic Q (see

model.glmm 
A character string indicating which GLMM model
should be used (see 
level 
The level used to calculate confidence intervals for individual studies. 
level.ma 
The level used to calculate confidence intervals for metaanalysis estimates. 
common 
A logical indicating whether a common effect metaanalysis should be conducted. 
random 
A logical indicating whether a random effects metaanalysis should be conducted. 
overall 
A logical indicating whether overall summaries should be reported. This argument is useful in a metaanalysis with subgroups if overall results should not be reported. 
overall.hetstat 
A logical value indicating whether to print heterogeneity measures for overall treatment comparisons. This argument is useful in a metaanalysis with subgroups if heterogeneity statistics should only be printed on subgroup level. 
method.random.ci 
A character string indicating which method
is used to calculate confidence interval and test statistic for
random effects estimate (see 
adhoc.hakn.ci 
A character string indicating whether an
ad hoc variance correction should be applied in the case
of an arbitrarily small HartungKnapp variance estimate (see

method.predict 
A character string indicating which method is
used to calculate a prediction interval (see

adhoc.hakn.pi 
A character string indicating whether an
ad hoc variance correction should be applied for
prediction interval (see 
seed.predict 
A numeric value used as seed to calculate
bootstrap prediction interval (see 
method.tau 
A character string indicating which method is
used to estimate the betweenstudy variance 
method.tau.ci 
A character string indicating which method is
used to estimate the confidence interval of 
tau.preset 
Prespecified value for the square root of the
betweenstudy variance 
TE.tau 
Overall treatment effect used to estimate the betweenstudy variance tausquared. 
tau.common 
A logical indicating whether tausquared should be the same across subgroups. 
prediction 
A logical indicating whether a prediction interval should be printed. 
level.predict 
The level used to calculate prediction interval for a new study. 
null.effect 
A numeric value specifying the effect under the null hypothesis. 
method.bias 
A character string indicating which test for
funnel plot asymmetry is to be used, can be abbreviated. See
function 
backtransf 
A logical indicating whether results should be
back transformed in printouts and plots. If 
pscale 
A numeric giving scaling factor for printing of
single event probabilities or risk differences, i.e. if argument

irscale 
A numeric defining a scaling factor for printing of
single incidence rates or incidence rate differences, i.e. if
argument 
irunit 
A character specifying the time unit used to calculate rates, e.g. personyears. 
text.common 
A character string used in printouts and forest plot to label the pooled common effect estimate. 
text.random 
A character string used in printouts and forest plot to label the pooled random effects estimate. 
text.predict 
A character string used in printouts and forest plot to label the prediction interval. 
text.w.common 
A character string used to label weights of common effect model. 
text.w.random 
A character string used to label weights of random effects model. 
title 
Title of metaanalysis / systematic review. 
complab 
Comparison label. 
outclab 
Outcome label. 
label.e 
Label for experimental group. 
label.c 
Label for control group. 
label.left 
Graph label on left side of forest plot. 
label.right 
Graph label on right side of forest plot. 
n.e 
Number of observations in experimental group (only for

n.c 
Number of observations in control group (only for metagen object). 
method.mean 
A character string indicating which method to
use to approximate the mean from the median and other statistics
(see 
method.sd 
A character string indicating which method to use
to approximate the standard deviation from sample size, median,
interquartile range and range (see 
approx.mean.e 
Approximation method to estimate means in
experimental group (see 
approx.mean.c 
Approximation method to estimate means in
control group (see 
approx.sd.e 
Approximation method to estimate standard
deviations in experimental group (see 
approx.sd.c 
Approximation method to estimate standard
deviations in control group (see 
approx.mean 
Approximation method to estimate means (see

approx.sd 
Approximation method to estimate standard
deviations (see 
approx.TE 
Approximation method to estimate treatment
estimate (see 
approx.seTE 
Approximation method to estimate standard error
(see 
pooledvar 
A logical indicating if a pooled variance should
be used for the mean difference or ratio of means (see

method.smd 
A character string indicating which method is
used to estimate the standardised mean difference (see

sd.glass 
A character string indicating which standard
deviation is used in the denominator for Glass' method to
estimate the standardised mean difference (only for metacont
object with 
exact.smd 
A logical indicating whether exact formulae should be used in estimation of the standardised mean difference and its standard error. 
method.ci 
A character string indicating which method is used
to calculate confidence intervals for individual studies. Either

subgroup 
An optional vector to conduct a metaanalysis with subgroups. 
subgroup.name 
A character string with a name for the subgroup variable. 
print.subgroup.name 
A logical indicating whether the name of the subgroup variable should be printed in front of the group labels. 
sep.subgroup 
A character string defining the separator between name of subgroup variable and subgroup label. 
test.subgroup 
A logical value indicating whether to print results of test for subgroup differences. 
prediction.subgroup 
A logical indicating whether prediction intervals should be printed for subgroups. 
seed.predict.subgroup 
A numeric vector providing seeds to calculate bootstrap prediction intervals within subgroups. Must be of same length as the number of subgroups. 
byvar 
Deprecated argument (replaced by 'subgroup'). 
id 
Deprecated argument (replaced by 'cluster'). 
print.CMH 
A logical indicating whether result of the CochranMantelHaenszel test for overall effect should be printed. 
keepdata 
A logical indicating whether original data (set) should be kept in meta object. 
left 
A logical indicating whether studies are supposed to be
missing on the left or right side of the funnel plot. If NULL,
the linear regression test for funnel plot symmetry (i.e.,
function 
ma.common 
A logical indicating whether a common effect or random effects model is used to estimate the number of missing studies. 
type 
A character indicating which method is used to estimate
the number of missing studies. Either 
n.iter.max 
Maximum number of iterations to estimate number of missing studies. 
warn 
A logical indicating whether warnings should be printed
(e.g., if 
warn.deprecated 
A logical indicating whether warnings should be printed if deprecated arguments are used. 
verbose 
A logical indicating whether to print information on updates of older meta versions. 
control 
An optional list to control the iterative process to
estimate the betweenstudy variance 
... 
Additional arguments (ignored at the moment). 
Wrapper function to update an existing metaanalysis object which
was created with R function metabin
,
metacont
, metacor
,
metagen
, metainc
,
metamean
, metaprop
, or
metarate
. More details on function arguments are
available in help files of respective R functions.
This function can also be used for objects of class 'trimfill', 'metacum', and 'metainf'.
An object of class "meta"
and "metabin"
,
"metacont"
, "metacor"
, "metainc"
,
"metagen"
, "metamean"
, "metaprop"
, or
"metarate"
(see metaobject
).
Guido Schwarzer guido.schwarzer@uniklinikfreiburg.de
metabin
, metacont
,
metacor
, metagen
,
metainc
, metamean
,
metaprop
, metarate
data(Fleiss1993cont)
m1 < metacont(n.psyc, mean.psyc, sd.psyc, n.cont, mean.cont, sd.cont,
data = Fleiss1993cont, studlab = paste(study, year), sm = "SMD")
m1
# Change summary measure (from 'SMD' to 'MD')
#
update(m1, sm = "MD")
# Restrict analysis to subset of studies
#
update(m1, subset = 1:2)
# Use different levels for confidence intervals
#
m2 < update(m1, level = 0.66, level.ma = 0.99)
print(m2, digits = 2)
forest(m2)
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